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P. J. Ndolo and E. G. Rhoden

Root growth of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.] cvs `TI-82-155', `Centennial' and `Rojo Blanco' in coarse fritted clay soil, was investigated under greenhouse conditions. The sweet potato cultivars were harvested at 41 and 82 days after planting. Dry weight of fibrous roots of all cultivars were similar at day 41. Fibrous root weight of `Rojo Blanco' increased by 5% while those of the other cultivars increased by 168%. Mean fibrous root length per centimeter depth was not significantly different among cultivars. Although fresh weight of storage roots of `Rojo Blanco' was significantly lower than those of the other cultivars, their dry weights were similar. `TI-82-155' and `Rojo Blanco' had fewer storage roots compared to the other cultivars, however, storage root length of `TI-82-155' or `Rojo Blanco' was greater than that of `Georgia Jet' or `Centennial'. Length to diameter ratio of the storage root of `Rojo Blanco' was significantly greater than that of `TI-82-155' and `Georgia Jet'.

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M. Mergo, E. G. Rhoden and M. Burns

Intercropping is a management system that maximizes production per unit area of land. Intercropping has to be carried out with crops that are compatible in order to ensure increased productivity. An intercropping study was conducted to determine a suitable planting pattern for corn (Zea mays), an overstory crop, and sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), an under-story crop. Five relative planting dates were established for each component crop (3 week; before, 3WB; 2 weeks before, 2WB; simultaneous, SIM; 2 weeks after, 2WA; and 3 weeks after, 3WA planting the other crop). Monocrop of each component was also planted. The marketable yields of sweetpotato were reduced by 48, 57, 75, 76 and 74% when sweetpotato was intercropped with corn and planted 3WB, 2WB, SIM, 2WA and 3WA corn, respectively. Corn grain yields were reduced 28, 28, 26, 57, and 66% when intercropped with sweetpotato beginning 3WB, 2WB, SIM, 2WA and 3WA sweetpotato, respectively. Although yields of individual component crop were reduced in intercrop, there was no significant difference in land utilization. Land equivalent ratio, area time equivalent ratio, and competition ratio were not significantly affected by planting date. Intercropping corn and sweetpotato was compatible when both crops were simultaneously planted.

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N. Baharanyi, E. G. Rhoden and V. Khan

This study examined the potential economic returns of using four different sources of nitrogen on `calabaza' pumpkins, a low moisture variety consumed as starch by many foreign nationals. Yields were 12.4, 12.6, 8.2 and 9.5 kg/plant for ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and urea, respectively. Assuming 1989 farm gate prices in Alabama and other appropriate cost for vaious inputs used, the estimated return at $0.30/lb of pumpkin was $10,003, $10,115, $6,105 and $7,371/acre for different sources of nitrogen, respectively. The relatively higher return from sodium nitrate use explains the use of this source of nitrogen on rented land. A sensitivity analysis of the enterprise budgets shows a breakeven price between $0.02 and $0.10/lb.

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P. J. Ndolo and E. G. Rhoden

Root growth of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.] cvs `TI-82-155', `Centennial' and `Rojo Blanco' in coarse fritted clay soil, was investigated under greenhouse conditions. The sweet potato cultivars were harvested at 41 and 82 days after planting. Dry weight of fibrous roots of all cultivars were similar at day 41. Fibrous root weight of `Rojo Blanco' increased by 5% while those of the other cultivars increased by 168%. Mean fibrous root length per centimeter depth was not significantly different among cultivars. Although fresh weight of storage roots of `Rojo Blanco' was significantly lower than those of the other cultivars, their dry weights were similar. `TI-82-155' and `Rojo Blanco' had fewer storage roots compared to the other cultivars, however, storage root length of `TI-82-155' or `Rojo Blanco' was greater than that of `Georgia Jet' or `Centennial'. Length to diameter ratio of the storage root of `Rojo Blanco' was significantly greater than that of `TI-82-155' and `Georgia Jet'.

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Rochele C. Strachan, E.G. Rhoden and G. W. Carver

Growing crops using poor quality Later can result in poor germination and seedling survival. Low germination rates of various crops in the Bahamas result from the high salinity of the irrigation water. This study investigated the effects of using varying levels of sea water on germination and imbibition rates of lupine (Lupinus albus) seeds. In separate completely randomized design experiments, 100 lupine seeds were placed in conical flasks and either de ionized distilled water (DDW). 100%, 75%, 50% or 25% sea water added to each flask. Seeds ware removed from each flask every hour for the first 8 hours and every six hours thereafter for 48 hours. lmbibition rate is expressed as mg/ghr using the formula: (original weight - weight at y hr) × 1000)/(original weight x y hrs). Germination of seeds was measured beginning 3 days after imbibition began and the experiments were terminated after 10 days. The highest rate of imbibition (178.8 mg/g/hr) was recorded for lupine seeds placed in 25% sea water and the lowest of 152.8 mg/g/hr for seeds placed in 100% sea water after two hours. Germination ranged between 49% (100% sea water) to 94.7% for seeds placed in DDW. It would appear that if lupine seeds were primed with 25% sea water (approximately 150 ppm, NaCI) there would be no significant reduction in either the imbibition or the germination rates.

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P.J. Ndolo, E.G. Rhoden and G. W. Carver

A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the uptake, accumulation and percent recovery of N, P, K, Ca and Mg by sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cv `TI-155', `Centennial', `Georgia Jet' and `Rojo Blanco'. These cultivars were grown in a fritted clay medium and harvested after 42 and 32 days. There were no significant difference in total elements uptake among the cultivars at 42 days. However, Georgia Jet accumulated more P and K than TI-155 and had higher levels of K than Rojo Blanco at day 82. Total accumulation of elements increased significantly from 42 to 82 days. Leaves accounted for most of the plant N at both harvest periods. Storage roots contained significantly more K than leaves, vines or fibrous roots. Percent N, P and K uptake was significantly lower at 42 than at 82 days. Cultivars also had no significant difference in percent uptake at day 42. However, at day 82, Georgia Jet showed a significantly higher P and K percent recovery than Rojo Blanco.

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Bernadette McKelly, E. G. Rhoden and G.W. Carver

Hot pepper (Capsicum annum) is gaining popularity as a food flavor additive. A study was initiated to determine the fruiting characteristics of two hot pepper cultivars; `Scotch Bonnet' and `Brown Lue'. After evaluating 100 fruits of each cultivar, it was found that `Scotch Bonnet' fruits had 34% more seeds and these seeds weighed 9% more than `Brown Lue'. Although `Brown Lue' had longer fruits (3.89 vs 3.33 cm) than `Scotch Bonnet', this difference was not significant. In addition, `Scotch Bonnet' had greater fruit circumference and circumference to length ratio than `Brown Lue'. When fruits were compared for fresh and dried weights, there was no significant difference. However, `Brown Lue' had a significantly higher percent dry matter. Based on dry matter, if fruits were to be produced for crushed peppers, it might be more advantageous to use `Brown Lue'.

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E. G. Rhoden, P. J. Ndolo and G. W. Carver

A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the ability of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), cv. `Centennial', `Rojo Blanco', `Georgia Jet' and `TI-82-155', fibrous roots to accumulate N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Sweetpotato plants were grown in a fritted clay medium and harvested 42 and 82 days after planting. Fibrous roots comprised 22 to 28.1% and 3.9 to 11.1% of the plant dry weight at 42 and 82 days after planting, respectively. There was no difference in the average root length/cm depth of soil among the four sweetpotato cultivars at day 42. While there was no difference in average root length among `Centennial', `Rojo Blanco' and `TI-82-155', these cultivars were significantly different from `Georgia Jet' at day 82. For the four cultivars, there were no significant differences in N, P, K, Mg and Ca Uptake at day 42, but each cultivar absorbed significantly more of each element 82 days after planting. `Georgia Jet' absorbed significantly more of the nutrients measured than the other cultivars, resulting in the highest dry matter yield. The data show that the efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients by sweetpotato are related to the amount of fibrous roots present.

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Tanya Small, E. G. Rhoden, A. Woldeghebriel and G.W. Carver

Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) has become a pervasive weed in the southeast US. It has been receiving much attention recently and a study was initiated to evaluate the plant as an alternative food and feed source. Kudzu vines were sectioned into; 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm and analysed for acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ash and crude protein content. Leaf ash content of kudzu increased while stem ash content decreased as the vine was sampled from the growing tip. Stem NDF increased from 44.4% at the 0-25 cm section to 57.83% at the 75-100 cm section of the vine, while leaf NDF declined from 52.23 to 39.01% for the same sections. The trend was reversed for ADF in the kudzu leaf and stem. Crude protein content of kudzu ranged from 18.45% at the 0-25 cm section for leaves to 7.42% for stem sections at 75-100 cm. The high crude protein content of kudzu as well as its abundance in the Southeast makes it a good feed source and a potential food source. However, further studies are needed to determine the vitamin content and digestion coefficient to ascertain its suitability as a food and feed source.

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E. Niyonsaba, E. G. Rhoden and P. K. Biswas

The uptake of nutrients by sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) is critical in determining crop yield. Research was conducted to assess the effects of gypsum application on the nutrient uptake in three sweetpotato cultivars; `Carver II', `Georgia Jet' and `Jewel'. Gypsum application did not influence leaf P content of sweetpotato. However application of 3 tons per acre of gypsum increased leaf N and K content in `Carver II' and `Jewel' at 60 and 90 days after planting. There was a similar increase observed in Ca and Mg content of the leaf. While rate of gypsum did not influence nutrient uptake, date of sampling significantly influenced leaf nutrient concentration. It was noted that leaf K for `Jewel' and Ca for `Carver II' were greatest at 60 days after planting. Overall, Mg content was decreased following the application of gypsum in both `Carver II' and `Georgia Jet' cultivars.