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  • Author or Editor: E. Fairchild x
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A two-year study was conducted on 12 possible varieties as pollen sources for Anjou pear. Bloom dates of the varieties were compared with bloom date of Anjou. Viability of pollen was determined including germination and tube growth. The Anjou trees were hand-pollinated using the various sources of pollen, then later we determined fruit set. The fruit was harvested and size of fruit, number of seeds, firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity and physiological disorders were determined. Bloom dates corresponding most closely to Anjou were Bartlett, Pyrus calleryana and the Asian pear Nijisecki. Pollen from El Dorado, OHxF 33 and OHxF69 had the highest percent germination and the best pollen tube growth. Bartlett, Pyrus calleryana, Nijisecki, OHxF333 and OHxF69 showed the highest percent fruit set. The largest fruit was from flowers pollinated with Nijisecki, Dawn, Bose and self-pollinated. Fruit with highest numbers of seeds was fruit with pollen from Nijisecki, Usserienses, Dawn, Comice and Bosc. There was no difference in firmness, soluble solids or tritratable acidity, and there was no physiological disorders. The study indicated Bartlett pear is the best all-round pollinizer for Anjou pear.

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In the past, the laborious and time-consuming method of defoliation was used to determine vegetative maturity (VM) of various deciduous plants. Other methods such as water potential and electrotrical impedence have been explored without a positive response. A change of freezing events of water in plant tissue may be associated with VM. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was tried to determine if the freezing events of water are related to VM. `Golden Delicious', `Gala', `Red Fuji' and `Antonovka' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees were used to determine VM by defoliation. Different sets of 1-year-old trees grown in pots in the greenhouse were defoliated weekly from 1 Aug. until it was assured the trees had reached VM. Samples from the same trees were taken for DTA. The trees were observed for regrowth 2 weeks after they were defoliated, and the exothermic patterns from DTA were examined for the appearance of an exotherm at about –35 to –40°C. The comparison of regrowth from trees defoliated from a specific date were compared to the exothermic pattern of the same date. An exotherm appeared between –35 and –40°C ≈2 weeks before the apple trees ceased to show regrowth from the defoliation treatment. The exotherm appeared on 30 Aug. for Antonovka and `Golden Delicious' and regrowth of the trees ceased on 12 Sept. Regrowth ceased on 9 Oct. for `Gala' and `Fuji' preceded by the exotherm on 2 Oct. The conclusion was that the appearance of the exotherm at –35 to –40 °C could be used to determine VM.

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