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E. C. Lougheed

Abstract

This review is restricted to the effects of combinations of at least two of the following factors—O2, CO2, and temperature—that may interact with ethylene and relative humidity to induce disorders in vegetables.

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D.C. Elfving and E.C. Lougheed

In three trials over 3 years, foliar BA applications for fruitlet thinning of `Empire' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees produced small and inconsistent effects on flesh firmness at harvest and after air storage. Soluble solids concentrations at harvest and after air storage were consistently increased by BA alone or together with GA4+7 [Promalin (PR)], and were also increased by CB in one trial. Starch hydrolysis was slightly delayed by BA applications in 1990. Ethylene evolution at harvest was increased by NAA in 1988 and slightly increased by PR applied 29 days after full bloom (DAFB) in 1990, while poststorage ethylene evolution was stimulated by BA and PR treatments in 1990 except BA at 29 DAFB. Incidence of poststorage disorders was low and largely uninfluenced by thinning treatments. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; BA plus gibberellins A4 and A7 (GA 4+7) [Promalin (PR)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate [carbaryl (CB)].

Open access

E. C. Lougheed and E. W. Franklin

Abstract

Bruising increased ethylene production of freshly harvested ‘Red Snow’ and ‘Northern Spy’ apples.

Open access

E. C. Lougheed and Hunter Johnson Jr.

Abstract

My congratulations to the authors of the ASHS Publications Manual. I expect the manual is the most complete and up-to-date reference of its kind available. It should be required reading of all authors submitting manuscripts to ASHS publications, could very well serve as a guide to writing theses, and would be helpful to anyone writing in English.

Open access

L. S. Bérard and E. C. Lougheed

Abstract

The permeability of the flesh of ‘McIntosh’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), as measured by electrolyte leakage, appeared to follow a phasic pattern with aging. A phase of initial reduction of permeability preceded a large increase, then there was a slight transient decrease in permeability, and finally a slight increase. Field treatment with butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide), early harvest, controlled atmosphere and low-pressure storage as well as a low storage temperature (0.5 vs. 3.5°C) favored a reduction of permeability. The effect of low-pressure storage on the reduction of permeability appeared to be due to a delay of ripening as evident in delayed C2H4 production; that of controlled-atmosphere storage seemed to be due to some effect of the atmosphere other than one upon ripening, because the fruit produced C2H4 upon removal from storage.

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D.C. Elfving, E.C. Lougheed, and R.A. Cline

A midsummer foliar daminozide (DZ) application (750 mg a.i./liter) to `Macspur McIntosh'/M.7 apple trees (Malus domestics Borkh.) reduced preharvest drop and retarded flesh firmness loss and starch hydrolysis when tested at harvest; DZ also reduced fruit ethylene production at harvest and after 19 weeks of storage at 0.5C. Root pruning at full bloom (May) resulted in increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) and firmer flesh and less starch hydrolysis at harvest, but not consistently each year. Full-bloom root pruning reduced the incidence of stem-cavity browning and brown core, but again not each year. Full-bloom root pruning did not influence ethylene evolution at harvest but did reduce post-storage ethylene evolution in two of three seasons. Full-bloom root pruning generally was less effective than DZ in altering fruit behavior, while root pruning later than full bloom had virtually no effect. Trunk scoring or ringing increased SSC and retarded loss of flesh firmness before harvest and following storage, but had little effect on starch hydrolysis. Scoring or ringing decreased incidence of some disorders and reduced post-storage ethylene evolution, although these treatments had little effect on ethylene production at harvest. Trunk scoring influenced some fruit characteristics more strongly than DZ. Fruit size was not affected by any treatment in any year. Chemical name used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2 -dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide).

Open access

E. C. Lougheed and E. W. Franklin

Abstract

CO2 production of apple fruits, potato tubers, and onion bulbs was consistently higher at flow rates of 150 or 75 ml/minute than at 15 ml/minute with production at the 2 higher rates being similar.

Open access

A. W. McKeown, E. C. Lougheed, and D. P. Murr

Abstract

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cv. Quick Green Storage) and carrots (Daucus carota L., Nantes type) were stored successfully in low pressure storage (LPS) at 50-60 Torr and 1° and 5°C with ‘Delicious’ apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.). LPS conditions minimized the effect of the ethylene produced by the apples on leaf senescence and abscission of cabbage, and formation of a bitter flavor in carrots.

Open access

J. T. A. Proctor and E. C. Lougheed

Abstract

Covering apples with foil bags about 1 month after bloom to harvest had no effect on fruit size or starch content, had inconsistent effects on fruit firmness, and reduced soluble solids, anthocyanin and chlorophyll. Uncovering fruits at various times before harvest allowed formation of anthocyanin, maximum amounts being dependent on cultivar and time of exposure.

Open access

L. S. Bérard, E. C. Lougheed, and D. P. Murr

Abstract

Wall-bound β-galactosidase activity within the cortical flesh of ‘McIntosh’ apples (Malus domestica Bork.) increased in storage, but was independent of fruit ripening. There was less activity in fruits held in low pressure storage than in those held in controlled atmosphere or in refrigerated storage, and less activity in fruits held at 0.5 than at 3.5°C. Fruit field-treated with butanedioic acid mono-(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide) had more β-galactosidase activity than control fruits at harvest, and maintained higher β-galactosidase activity in storage, but did not soften more rapidly than control fruits. Storage treatments that led to rapid softening coincided with the highest enzyme activity that developed in storage, but low enzyme activity was not consistently related to low softening rates.