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  • Author or Editor: Durward A. Smith x
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Abstract

Steam peeling resulted in higher, peeled yields and a brighter-colored product than caustic peeling. Efficient peeling was possible using relatively low pressures in conjunction with superheated steam. Peeled yields were 98% for superheated steam-peeled apples with flash cooling, 92% for caustic-peeled fruit which had a prepeel treatment to physically disrupt the cutin layer, 86% for conventionally caustic-peeled fruit, and 83% for the mechanically peeled control.

Open Access

Abstract

Processing variables including soaking medium, soaking temperature and soak time were examined in the production of quick cooking southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata (1.) Walp. ov. Freezegreen). The partially hydrated peas were cooked by microwave, and freeze dried before being rehydrated and examined for color, texture, and seedcoat integrity. Rapid low temperature vacuum infusion of soaking water produced a uniform product with good seedcoat integrity. The use of certain phosphates in the soaking medium resulted in very good retention of the green color.

Open Access

There is little information regarding processing methods that result in quality and uniformity in varietal apple wines. The object of this research was to determine if apple cultivars grown in the Great Plains region could be used to produce premium quality single cultivar wines, and to establish efficient processing methods that optimize quality. The qualities of single cultivar apple (Malus ×domestica) wines were investigated, including chemical characteristics of the apple juices, e.g. total soluble solids, acidities, and tannin contents. Analyses were performed on the fresh juices, fermenting juices, wines held for 6 months, and the aged wines. Fermentable sugar content was increased either by the addition of sucrose or by the addition of concentrated juice of the same apple cultivar. An optimized method of purge and cold trapping injection capillary gas chromatography was applied to the analysis of some volatile constituents. Profiles of the wine volatiles were analyzed to determine differences among cultivars. The harsh flavors and yeasty odors of the wines diminished after 6 months of storage. Acidity and volatile acidity increased slightly during storage. Tannin contents, fermentation efficiencies and volatile profiles differed among varieties. This research indicated that some apple cultivars grown in the Great Plains produce acceptable single cultivar wines.

Free access

Abstract

Environmental concerns and disadvantages of synthetic insecticides have stimulated interest in natural chemicals derived from plants for insect control. Extracts from seeds of the neem tree (Azidirachta indica A. Juss) have attracted attention as an insecticide not only because of its broad spectrum action, but also because it has demonstrated uncommon safety to man and warm-blooded animals and the environment (Henkes, 1986). Furthermore, neem extract has been reported to act systemically to effectively control serpentine leafminer (Liromyza trifolii Burgess), a serious pest on ornamentals and vegetables due mainly to pesticide resistance (Larew et al., 1984; Lindquist et al., 1986; Stein and Parrella, 1985; Webb et al., 1983). Larew et al. (1984) demonstrated that neem soil drenches provided systemic control of L. trifolii for up to 3 weeks. Lindquist et al. (1986) investigated the use of neem insecticide (Margosan-O) as a preshipping crop treatment by soaking bare root cuttings in neem solutions. Their 2- to 4-hr soaks (3.0% Margosan-O) effectively controlled leafminers for 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if a simple in-transit application method could provide control of serpentine leafminers on chrysanthemum.

Open Access

Abstract

Thermal blast peeling yielded products of comparable quality to freeze–heat-peeled tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Both methods resulted in higher peeled yields and firmer fruit than did caustic, steam-peeling, or peeling by scalding. Thermal blast peeling may thus be a practical alternative to traditional methods.

Open Access