The effect of abscisic acid on the development of primary androgenic embryo and secondary somatic embryogenesis was investigated with the aim of improving multiplication rates and secondary somatic embryo quality in horse chestnut microspore and anther culture. The early embryo stage (globular) had a better response than late stages (heart, torpedo, and cotyledonary) in both types of cultures. Also, microspore culture had a high potential for mass secondary embryo production. The number of secondary somatic embryos was three times higher on hormone-free medium than on medium enriched with 0.01 mg·L−1 abscisic acid. However, most of the embryos on hormone-free medium had abnormal morphology. For this reason, abscisic acid was added to the media to improve embryo quality. The morphology of abscisic acid treated embryos was better than abscisic acid non-treated embryos. The optimal abscisic acid concentration for secondary somatic embryo induction and production of high-quality embryos was 0.01 mg·L−1. Overall, the effect of abscisic acid on the induction of secondary somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of androgenic embryos of this species may be helpful for the further synthesis of secondary metabolites in vitro and their application in the pharmaceutical industry.