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Douglas A. Bailey

Regional cooperative efforts such as the Southern Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Director's Advisory Committees, Development Committees, Multi-State Research Fund supported projects, and Southern Extension/Research Activities Information Exchange Groups have been in existence and have been successful for many years. However, there are opportunities and compelling circumstances for more intensive regionalized efforts, including multi-state faculty positions and multi-state cooperatives. The University of Georgia is involved in three multistate horticulture faculty positions—an orchard floor management specialist (shared with Clemson University and North Carolina State University), an apple research position (shared with Clemson University, North Carolina State University, and The University of Tennessee), and an apple extension specialist (shared with The University of Tennessee)—and one multi-state cooperative, the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (supported by Clemson University, North Carolina State University, The University of Georgia, and The University of Tennessee). Justification for these regional efforts includes the following: 1) federal legislation now mandates multi-institutional and integrated (research and extension) activities; 2) state boundaries form artificial barriers that are transparent to clientele groups, problems, and solutions; 3) decreasing state budgets have resulted in faculty and staff reductions at many institutions, with a subsequent decline in services to clientele groups; and 4) in times of limited funding, universities must focus on areas of excellence and collaborate with other institutions to fill in the remaining gaps. Benefits we have realized from these efforts include the following: 1) better service for minor commodities; 2) better educational programs due to larger venues and pooled overhead funds; 3) enhanced communication among institutions leading to increased cooperative efforts in other areas; and 4) reduced duplicity among institutions resulting in freed up resources to address other high priority areas. There are challenges unique to regional cooperatives: 1) travel distances for extension faculty may be increased and require a high degree of planning and coordination; 2) depending on the housing location of the shared specialist, response time can be greater than if program were housed in-state; and 3) shared programs require open, effective, and increased communications among cooperators. In our experience, the benefits of regionalization far outweigh the additional challenges encountered. However, to be successful: 1) the whole must be greater than the sum of the parts; 2) each partner must have identify preservation; 3) stakeholders must realize value from the programs and must be kept abreast of program successes to assure their continued support.

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Douglas A. Bailey

The 8th annual Southeast Greenhouse Conference and Trade Show (SGCTS) will be held in June 2000. This meeting is the result of cooperative efforts among the Alabama Nurserymen's Association, Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association, Georgia Commercial Flower Growers Association, North Carolina Commercial Flower Growers' Association, South Carolina Greenhouse Growers Association, Tennessee Flower Growers Association, Virginia Greenhouse Growers Association; and the Cooperative Extension Services and Land Grant Universities of all seven participating states, including Auburn Univ., Clemson Univ., the Univ. of Florida, the Univ. of Georgia, North Carolina State Univ., Univ. of Tennessee, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., and Virginia State Univ. Through pooling of efforts and resources, the SGCTS has become one of the major floriculture educational and trade show events in North America, and it has grown from an initial participation of 347 and a trade show of 89 booths in 1993 to 2407 participants and 398 booths in 1999. The SGCTS serves as an excellent example of cooperative partnering among grower organizations, Cooperative Extension, and faculty at Land Grant Institutions. It eliminates duplication of efforts among individual states, each historically holding their own state meeting. Proceeds from the conference support grower organizations, which in turn support research and educational programs at the cooperating universities. Over $55,000 were disbursed back to the state associations in 1999.

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Douglas A. Bailey and Bernadette Clark

Summer spray applications of 5000 ppm daminozide (1× or 2×), 62 ppm paclobutrazol (1× or 2×), or 5 ppm uniconazole (1× or 2×) were applied to seven cultivars (Böttstein, Enziandom, Kasteln, Mathilde Gütges, Merritt's Supreme, Red Star, and Schenkenburg) of florists' hydrangea [Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. macrophylla var. macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser.] to evaluate cultivar response to plant growth retardants (PGRs). Both daminozide treatments and the 2× uniconazole treatment effectively reduced plant height for all cultivars during the summer growth period; cultivars varied in response to the paclobutrazol treatments and the 1× uniconazole treatment. Daminozide and uniconazole treatments resulted in less elongation than all other treatments during forcing for most cultivars tested. Paclobutrazol treatments had no residual effect on shoot elongation during forcing of the cultivars tested. The 2× treatments of all PGRs decreased inflorescence diameter of some of the cultivars tested compared with nonsprayed controls. Results from this study indicate that 1) summer application of PGRs can have a residual effect on plant height and inflorescence diameter of hydrangeas during the spring greenhouse forcing phase; and 2) hydrangea cultivars differ significantly in response to the PGRs tested. Therefore, the need for height control during the spring forcing period of hydrangeas will vary with cultivar, and it will depend on how plants were treated the previous summer growing season. We recommend that producers of dormant hydrangeas provide records of their summer height control program to forcers so that height control programs during spring forcing can be adjusted appropriately.

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Douglas A. Bailey and P. Allen Hammer

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Douglas A. Bailey and William B. Miller

Plants of Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. `Glory' were grown under 13.4, 8.5, or 4.0 mol·m-2·day-1 and sprayed with water (control); 2500 mg·liter-1 daminozide + 1500 mg·liter-1 chlormequat chloride (D+C); 62.5 mg·liter-1 paclobutrazol; or 4, 8, 12 or 16 mg·liter-1 uniconazole to ascertain plant developmental and pest-production responses to the treatment combinations. Days to anthesis increased as irradiance was decreased. Anthesis was delayed by the D+C treatment, while other growth retardant (GR) treatments had no effect on anthesis. Irradiance did not affect plant height at anthesis, but all GR treatments decreased height over control plants. Bract display and bract canopy display diameters declined as irradiance was decreased. Growth retardants did not affect individual bract display diameters, but all GR treatments except paclobutrazol reduced bract canopy display diameter. Plants grown under lower irradiance had fewer axillary buds develop, fewer bract displays per plant, and fewer cyathia per bract display. Cyathia abscission during a 30 day post-anthesis evaluation was not affected by treatment; however, plant leaf drop was linearly proportional to irradiance. All GR treatments increased leaf drop over controls, and the D+C treated plants had the highest leaf loss. Results indicate the irradiance and GR treatments during production can affect poinsettia crop timing, plant quality at maturity, and subsequent post-production performance.

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Douglas A. Bailey and William B. Miller

Plants of Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. `Glory' were grown under 13.4, 8.5, or 4.0 mol·m-2·day-1 and sprayed with water (control); 2500 mg·liter-1 daminozide + 1500 mg·liter-1 chlormequat chloride (D+C); 62.5 mg·liter-1 paclobutrazol; or 4, 8, 12 or 16 mg·liter-1 uniconazole to ascertain plant developmental and pest-production responses to the treatment combinations. Days to anthesis increased as irradiance was decreased. Anthesis was delayed by the D+C treatment, while other growth retardant (GR) treatments had no effect on anthesis. Irradiance did not affect plant height at anthesis, but all GR treatments decreased height over control plants. Bract display and bract canopy display diameters declined as irradiance was decreased. Growth retardants did not affect individual bract display diameters, but all GR treatments except paclobutrazol reduced bract canopy display diameter. Plants grown under lower irradiance had fewer axillary buds develop, fewer bract displays per plant, and fewer cyathia per bract display. Cyathia abscission during a 30 day post-anthesis evaluation was not affected by treatment; however, plant leaf drop was linearly proportional to irradiance. All GR treatments increased leaf drop over controls, and the D+C treated plants had the highest leaf loss. Results indicate the irradiance and GR treatments during production can affect poinsettia crop timing, plant quality at maturity, and subsequent post-production performance.

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Douglas A. Bailey and William B. Miller

Plants of Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. `Glory' were grown under total irradiances of 13.4, 8.5, or 4.0 mol·m-2·day-1 and sprayed with water (control), 2500 mg daminozide/liter + 1500 mg chlormequat chloride/liter (D + C), 62.5 mg paclobutrazol/liter, or 4, 8, 12, or 16 mg uniconazole/liter to ascertain plant developmental and postproduction responses to treatment combinations. Anthesis was delayed for plants grown under the lowest irradiance. Anthesis was delayed by the D + C treatment, whereas other growth retardant treatments had no effect on anthesis date. Irradiance did not affect plant height at anthesis, but all growth retardant treatments decreased height over control plants. Inflorescence and bract canopy diameters were decreased at the lowest irradiance level. Growth retardants did not affect individual inflorescence diameters, but all, except paclobutrazol and 4 and 8 mg uniconazole/liter, reduced bract canopy diameter compared with control plants. Plants grown under the lowest irradiance developed fewer inflorescences per plant and fewer cyathia per inflorescence. Cyathia abscission during a 30-day postanthesis evaluation increased as irradiance was decreased; cyathia abscission was unaffected by growth retardant treatment. Leaf abscission after 30 days postanthesis was lowest for plants grown under the lowest irradiance. At 30 days postanthesis, all growth retardant treatments increased leaf abscission over controls. Results indicate that irradiance and growth retardant treatments during production can affect poinsettia crop timing, plant quality at maturity, and subsequent postproduction performance. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethyl hydrazide) (daminozide); β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]- α -(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol), (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-l-penten-3-ol (uniconazole, XE-1019).

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Michelle L. Bell, Roy A. Larson and Douglas A. Bailey

Experiments were designed to determine if the combination of 6-benzyl adenine + gibberellic acid 4+7 can promote increased lateral shoots of desirable number and length on azaleas (Rhododendron simsii Planch.). The use of dikegulac-sodium with the addition of GA4+7 was also investigated to determine if GA4+7 could overcome decreased plant height and diameter caused by dikegulac application. Treatments were applied by spraying 204 ml·m-2 to pinched plants of mean diameter and mean height of 16 and 13 cm, respectively, potted in 1.3 liter plastic containers. Shoot number, plant height and plant diameter were measured 9 weeks after application for the commercially prominent cvs. `Gloria' and `Prize'. Preliminary results indicate that 2100 mg·l-1 ai BA + 2100 mg·l-1 ai GA4+7 increases number of lateral shoots. Initial results suggest the addition of 2100 mg·l-1 ai GA4+7 to 3900 mg·l-1 ai dikegulac overcomes inhibition of internodal elongation induced by dikegulac alone. Further studies will determine the effectiveness of Promalin (N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + GA4+7, 1:1) as a pinching agent on azaleas.

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Michelle L. Bell, Roy A. Larson and Douglas A. Bailey

Dikegulac, dikegulac + GA4+7, BA, and Promalin (GA4+7 + BA) were evaluated as lateral shoot-inducing agents on greenhouse forcing azalea, Rhododendron cultivars Gloria and Prize. The addition of GA4+7 (1000 or 2000 mg.L-1) to a commercial rate of dikegulac (3900 mg.L-1) did not effectively increase plant diameter or leaf width compared to plants sprayed with dikegulac alone. The combination of dikegulac and GA4+7 (3900 + 2000 mg.L-1, respectively) was more phytotoxic than dikegulac alone. Foliar sprays of BA and Promalin at 1000 and 2000 mg.L-1 and 1000 and 1816 mg.L-1, respectively, did not increase lateral shoot count. Neither the addition of GA4+7 to dikegulac nor the use of Promalin is a viable alternative to dikegulac application for inducing lateral branch development of dikegulac-sensitive cultivars. Chemical names used: Na 2,3:4,6-Bis-0-(l-methylethylidene)-α-L-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid (dikegulac), (lα,2β,4aα,4bβ,10β)-2,4a,7-trihydroxy-l-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-l,10-dicarboxylic acid l,4a-lactone (GA4+7),N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purin-6-amine (BA), and Promalin [1:1 (wt/wt) GA4+7 and BA].