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  • Author or Editor: Dongliang Qiu x
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Leaf explants derived from in vitro–grown shoots of blueberry cultivars Bluejay, Pink Lemonade, Sunshine Blue, and Top Hat were cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 9.12 μm 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enylamino) purine or zeatin (ZT) in combination with 1.23, 2.46, or 4.92 μm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Calluses were induced from the explants and adventitious shoots were regenerated. ‘Sunshine Blue’ and ‘Top Hat’ produced more than four shoots per explant but shoot numbers were less than one for each ‘Pink Lemonade’ explant and about 0.2 per ‘Bluejay’ explant. The results indicate that there is significant difference among cultivars in indirect shoot organogenesis. The differences may be related to their diverse genetic background as they are polyploid hybrids. Microcuttings derived from adventitious shoots of ‘Sunshine Blue’ rooted in vitro in WPM medium supplemented with 9.84 μm IBA and also rooted ex vitro in a peat-based substrate after cuttings were dipped or not dipped in IBA solutions. Direct rooting of microcuttings in the peat-based substrate was effective, suggesting that in vitro rooting may not be necessarily needed. Survival rate of ex vitro–rooted plants in a shaded greenhouse was high, more than 90%. The established shoot regeneration protocols could be used for rapid propagation of ‘Sunshine Blue’ and ‘Top Hat’ and for cultivar improvement through genetic transformation.

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The regeneration frequency of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is greatly influenced by its genetic makeup and recalcitrant nature. Phenolic secretion, in particular, is a major problem in okra tissue culture. This study describes a reproducible, rapid, and more efficient in vitro regeneration method using cotyledonary node explants of okra. Explants were incubated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations and combinations of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) [benzyladenine (BA), thidiazuron (TDZ), and α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA)], and regeneration enhancers [silver nitrate (AgNO3) and Pluronic F-68]. Cut ends of cotyledonary node segments rapidly turned brown and cultures failed to establish. Antibrowning additives, such as activated charcoal (AC), ascorbic acid (AA), and AgNO3 at various concentrations in PGR-free MS basal medium were tested for their ability to control phenolic secretion from explants. Among these additives, 15 mg·L−1 AA was found to be optimal for controlling phenolic secretion, resulting in healthy explants and culture establishment. The highest number of shoots (a mean of 9.3 ± 0.9 shoots per cotyledonary node explant) was obtained on MS media containing 0.5 mg·L−1 NAA + 1 mg·L−1 TDZ + 0.1% Pluronic F-68. Individual shoots were elongated on MS medium + 1 mg·L−1 BA + 0.1 mg·L−1 gibberellic acid (GA3) (shoot length 5.3 ± 0.2 cm) and rooted on ½ MS medium + 1 mg·L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 200 mg·L−1 AC (5.3 ± 0.2 roots per shoot). Rooted plantlets were acclimatized in plastic pots inside a plant growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C and 70% relative humidity, with an 80% survival rate. This optimized protocol can be used for producing transgenic plants of commercial okra cultivars through genetic transformation.

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