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- Author or Editor: Dongcheng Liu x
The genetic relationships among 96 peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] genotypes and botanical varieties originating from different ecogeographical regions of China, Japan, North America, and South Korea were evaluated with 33 SSR markers screened from 108 published SSR markers developed for peach or sweet cherry (P. avium L.). The 33 SSRs detected polymorphisms among 96 genotypes and revealed a total of 283 alleles with an average of 8.6 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.40 (BPPCT041) to 0.98 (BPPCT009) with an average of 0.80. Unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distances classified genotypes into six groups, corresponding to their ecogeographical origin. Group I consisted of northern Chinese and northwestern Chinese local cultivars, and was divided into two subgroups, white and yellow peaches. Group II contained mainly southern Chinese local, Japanese, and North American cultivars and can be divided into four subgroups: Japanese white, Chinese flat, North American yellow, and some Chinese local ornamental peach cultivars. Groups III, IV, and V were comprised of Chinese local ancient cultivars, and contained `Xinjiangdatianren' and `Renmiantao', Chinese dwarf cultivars, and `Fenshouxing', respectively. Group VI had only `Baishanbitao', a Chinese ornamental cultivar. Northern and northwestern Chinese local cultivars clustered together with a greater diversity than southern Chinese local cultivars, indicating that the northern and northwestern Chinese local cultivars are similar ecotypes, and southern Chinese local cultivars are a subset of the northern Chinese group. Moreover, the Japanese and North American genotypes had a close phylogenetic relationship with southern Chinese local cultivars. The taxonomic placement of P. ferganensis (Kost. et Kiab) Kov. et Kost. and the phylogenetic relationship of `Baishanbitao' with peaches are discussed.
Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to evaluate genetic similarity and interrelationship among 104 plum (Prunus L. spp.) and related accessions from the Chinese National Germplasm Repository for Plums and Apricots and the Tianshan Germplasm Repository for Wild Fruit Resources, including six plum species (Prunus salicina Lindl., Prunus simonii Carr., Prunus ussuriensis Kov. et Kost., Prunus domestica L., Prunus cerasifera Ehrh., and Prunus spinosa L.), two related species [apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and nanking cherry (Prunus tomentosa Thunb.)], eight putative hybrids between plum and apricot (plumcot), and six accessions of wild European plum (P. domestica). Out of the 42 ISSR primers, 12 were selected, which generated 103 markers in total, 99 of which were polymorphic. Possible accession-specific ISSR bands or patterns were also found. Some possible synonyms or homonyms were clarified or discussed, and closely related accessions such as bud mutants were discriminated. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) using the Jaccard coefficient, two different dendrograms were constructed—one including accessions grouped by species and one with all 104 accessions—and a two-dimensional plot was obtained. Three groups were formed in both dendrograms and PCoA plot: Group I including apricot (‘Yinxiangbai’) and plumcot types; Group II containing Asia-originated diploid species [e.g., P. cerasifera, P. ussuriensis, P. tomentosa, and Chinese plum-types (i.e., P. salicina and its hybrids)]; and Group III involving European-origin polyploid species (e.g., P. spinosa and P. domestica) and recently found wild European plum accessions in China. The dendrogram with accessions grouped by species implied that 1) plumcot types had closer relatedness with apricot than with plum; 2) P. simonii should be a variant of P. salicina while P. ussuriensis an independent species; 3) P. domestica was more closely related to P. spinosa than to P. cerasifera. Two accessions of European plum (‘89-7-3’ and ‘Wanhei’) were clustered into outgroups in the dendrogram with all 104 accessions, which could been grouped within Group III in the PCoA plot. The distribution of both European plum and Chinese plum-types across respective groups did not reflect the geographic origins. The present study also further confirmed that the wild plants found in Xinjiang of China were P. domestica.