An experiment was designed to determine the effects of canal water and reclaimed wastewater on growth, yield, and fruit quality of mature (25-year-old) `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees on sour orange (C. aurantium L.) rootstock. The study was conducted from 1 Oct. 1990 to 18 Apr. 1994 at a site adjacent to the Indian River County municipal wastewater treatment facility located near Vero Beach, Fla. Treatments included canal water applied based on one-third or two-thirds soil water depletion and reclaimed wastewater applied using microsprinklers at 23.1 mm/week (low), 30.7 mm/week (moderate) and 38.6 mm/week (high). Trees receiving low and moderate levels of reclaimed wastewater had the largest canopies and trunk diameters and highest yields, even though the amount of fertilizer applied was less than that of canal water plots. Leaf nutrient levels were generally within acceptable ranges for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Na except in 1991 when levels were deficient due to excessive rainfall and leaching. Leaf B levels were similar for all reclaimed wastewater treatments but were lower for the canal water treatment in 1992 and 1993. Fruit growth rate, fruit and juice weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and TSS: TA ratio were similar for all treatments in 2 of 3 years. Peel thickness was similar for all treatments. Heavy metal concentration in the reclaimed wastewater was at low or nondetectable levels. Similarly, enteric viruses in the effluent were always <0.003 plaque forming units/liter. Reclaimed wastewater irrigation significantly increased weed growth compared to the canal water treatment.
Michael A. Maurer, Frederick S. Davies, and Donald A. Graetz
Nancy E. Roe, Peter J. Stoffella, and Donald Graetz
Compost (biosolids and yard trimmings at 134 t·ha-1) was applied to a sandy field soil with fertilizer at 0%, 50%, or 100% of the grower's standard rate (71N-39P-44K kg·ha-1 broadcast and 283N-278K kg·ha-1 banded in bed centers). Raised beds were constructed and covered with polyethylene mulch, and `Elisa' bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were transplanted into the plots. Foliage samples taken at early harvest indicated that leaf N concentrations increased and Cu concentrations decreased with increasing fertilizer rates. Leaf concentrations of P, K, Ca, and Mg increased and Cu decreased in plots amended with compost. Marketable pepper yields from plants grown in plots amended with compost were 30.3, 35.7, and 31.1 t·ha-1 in plots with 0%, 50%, and 100% fertilizer rate, respectively. Without compost, yields were 19.8, 31.1, and 32.0 t·ha-1 with 0%, 50%, and 100% fertilizer rate. `Valient' cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) were seeded through the same polyethylene mulch into the previous pepper plots. Marketable cucumber yields were not affected by residual fertilizer, but were higher (26.8 t·ha-1) in plots amended with compost than without compost (22.7 t·ha-1). In a second experiment, a biosolids-yard trimming-mixed waste paper (MWP) compost and a biosolids-yard trimming-refuse-derived fuel (RDF) compost were applied at 0 or 134 t·ha-1 with fertilizer at 0%, 50%, or 100% fertilizer rates, respectively. With no fertilizer, total yields from pepper plants were higher in plots amended with composts than without composts. In 50% fertilizer plots, yields were similar between compost treatments. At 100% fertilizer rate, yields with MWP compost were significantly higher than yields with RDF compost or with no compost. In plots without fertilizer or with 50% fertilizer rates, mean fruit size (g/fruit) was largest with MWP compost, intermediate with RDF compost, and smallest without compost. With 100% fertilizer, mean fruit size was larger with either compost than without compost. Composts combined with low rates of fertilizer generally produced higher pepper yields than other treatments. Residual compost increased yields of a subsequent cucumber crop. Yields from pepper plants without fertilizer were higher when soil was amended with composts with added MWP or RDF, but, with fertilizer, yields were similar or only slightly increased.
Nancy E. Roe, Peter J. Stoffella, and Donald Graetz
The composition of composts derived from municipal solid wastes can affect emergence and seedling growth. Composts consisting of biosolids and yard trimmings [standard compost (SC)] alone or with mixed waste paper (MWP), refuse-derived fuel (RDF), or refuse-derived fuel residuals (RDFR) were evaluated in seedling trays and pots for vegetable crop seedling emergence and growth. In trays, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings emerged faster from a commercial peat-lite mix and from sandy field soil than from the composts. Plants were tallest and shoots were generally heaviest in the peat-lite mix and aged SC and smallest in the field soil. MWP compost generally inhibited early seedling growth more than RDF or RDFR composts. Among the composts, seedlings were tallest and heaviest in SC. In pots, growth of each vegetable was generally greatest in SC, followed by other composts, and lowest in sandy soil. Tomato and pepper seedling emergence was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the RDF, RDFR, and MWP composts than cucumber seedling emergence. Fertilizer increased plant growth in each medium except SC, in which cucumber stem diameter was not increased. Adding MWP, RDF, or RDFR to SC generally decreased seedling emergence and growth. The composts prolonged days to emergence and decreased percent emerged seedlings. However, subsequent seedling growth in composts was equal to or greater than seedlings in the peat-lite mix and much greater than those in the sandy field soil.
John D. Lea-Cox, James P. Syvertsen, and Donald A. Graetz
15Nitrogen uptake, allocation, and leaching losses from soil were quantified during spring, for 4-year-old bearing `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi Macf.) trees on rootstocks that impart contrasting growth rates. Nine trees on either the fast-growing `Volkamer' lemon (VL) (C. volkameriana Ten & Pasq.) or nine on the slower-growing sour orange (SO) (C. aurantium L.) rootstocks were established in drainage lysimeters filled with Candler fine sand and fertilized with 30 split applications of N, totaling 76, 140, or 336 g·year-1 per tree. A single application of double-labeled ammonium nitrate (15NH 15 4NO3, 20% enriched) was applied at each rate to replicate trees, in late April. Leaves, fibrous roots, soil, and leachates were intensively sampled from each treatment over the next 29 days, to determine the fate of the 15NH 15 4NO3 application. Newly developing spring leaves and fruit formed dominant competitive sinks for 15N, accounting for between 40% and 70% of the total 15N taken up by the various treatments. Large fruit loads intercepted up to 20% of this 15N, at the expense of spring flush development, to the detriment of overall tree N status in low-N trees. Nitrogen supply at less than the currently recommended yearly rate of 380 g/tree exceeded the requirements of 4-year-old grapefruit trees on SO rootstock; however, larger trees on VL rootstock took up the majority of 15N from this rate over the 29-day period. Nitrogen-use efficiency declined with increasing N rate, irrespective of rootstock. The residual amounts of 15N remaining in the soil profile under SO trees after this time represented a significant N leaching potential from these sandy soils. Therefore, under these conditions, present N recommendations appear adequate for rootstocks that impart relatively fast growth rates to Citrus trees, but seem excessive for trees on slower-growing rootstock species.