Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.) has much potential as a nut-producing orchard or landscape tree, being resistant to chestnut blight [Endothia parasitica (Murr.) P.J. & H.W. Anderson] and high-yielding. Chestnut is monoecious and largely self-sterile, requiring cross-pollination to produce nuts (Sanders, 1974). There is considerable variation in nut traits, such as size and sugar content, even among nuts from the same tree (Miller, 1987), due to, in part, xenia effects. The nut is composed mostly of cotyledonary tissue with a small embryo and no endosperm (Sanders, 1974). Propagation by seed is generally successful; however, no criteria exist for selection of nuts that will produce superior seedlings. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between seed weight, seedling emergence, and seedling growth of half-sib Chinese chestnut seeds.