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- Author or Editor: Diana G. Carlson x
The glucosinolates (GSs) were estimated in the normally eaten portions of 72 cultivars of Oriental brassica vegetables including mustard greens (Brassica juncea L.), Chinese kale (B. oleracea L. Alboglabra Group Bail.), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa L. Pekinensis Group Bail.), pak choy (B. rapa Chinensis Group Bail.), tendergreen (B. rapa Perviridis Group Bail.), turnip (B. rapa L. Rapifera Group Bail., B. narinosa Bail., and B. nipposinica Bail.). Variation in GS profiles was complex. There was variation in percentages of major GSs and total GS among B. juncea, B. oleracea, and the combination B. rapa plus narinosa and nipposinica and among four subspecific groups of rapa plus the two species closely related to rapa: narinosa and nipposinica. B. juncea had distinctively high proportions of allyl-GS, ranging from 81% to 94%, whereas B. oleracea had distinctively high proportions of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-GS, ranging from 9% to 68%. Differences in GS profiles among the rapa groups, narinosa and nipposinica, were less distinctive. Cultivars of pak choy from China differed in percentages of three minor GSs from cultivars from Japan and elsewhere. There was also variation among cultivars of Chinese kale and between turnip foliage and roots.
Intact roots of 109 radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivars were analyzed for glucosinolates (GS’s) and found to contain primarily 4-methylthio-3-butenyl-GS with small amounts of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-, 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl-, and 3-indolylmethyl-GS’s. Cultivars included oil radishes (ssp. oleifera) and food radishes (ssp. radicola) available in European, European-American, Japanese, and Korean markets. Regarding total GS’s, 80% or more of the red European-American radishes had 100-199 pmole/100 g, the Korean 100-299, and the Japanese 200-399. No correlation was found between root size and 4-methylthio-3-butenyl-, 3-indolylmethyl-, or total GS’s. Japanese radish peelings contained significantly greater concentrations of these 3 constituents than did the peeled root.
Correlation coefficients based on relative concentrations of 13 glucosinolates in the edible parts of 30 cultivars were determined. Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. gemmifera group), cauliflower (B. oleracea L. botrytis group), and either marrow-stem or smooth-leafed kale (B. oleracea L. acephala group) had similar glucosinolate patterns based on significant correlations (P < 0.01). The glucosinolates of ‘Morris Heading’ collards [(B. oleracea L. acephala group (var. sabellica)] were highly correlated with those of curly kale [B. oleracea L. acephala group (var. selensia)]. Mustard greens [B. juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. var. rugosa Bailey] and the corresponding seeds were the most highly correlated of the 17 cultivars for which the edible parts and seeds were compared. Seed analyses indicated relationships among the cultivars somewhat similar to those seen for the edible portions.
Fourteen cultivars of turnip [Brassica rapa, rapifera group, also B. campestris L. ssp. rapifera (Metzg.) Sinsk.] recommended for human consumption of either tops or tops and roots and five cultivars recommended for consumption of roots were selected to compare glucosinolate (GS) levels in tops and roots. Also, two cultivars used for animal feed were included. The study revealed significantly lower levels of 1-methylpropyl-GS and 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl-GS in tops and roots of cultivars grown for greens, compared to those used for animal feed. Contents of 1-methylpropyl-, 3-butenyl-, and 4-pentenyl-GSs were higher in turnip tops than in roots, while 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl-, 4-(methylthio)butyl-, 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl-, 2-hydroxy-4-pentenyl-, 5-(methylthio)pentyl-, 2-phenylethyl-, 3-indolylmethyl-GSs and total GS were all higher in the roots. GS patterns for seeds tended to correlate with those of the tops.