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- Author or Editor: Desmond Mortley x
The effects of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, 10, and 100 mg Mn/liter on sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were evaluated in a greenhouse during 2 years using the nutrient film technique. Foliage and storage root dry weights declined linearly as Mn concentration increased in either whole plants or fibrous roots. Foliage and storage root dry weights were equally sensitive to Mn concentration in whole plants but 5 to 15 times more sensitive to increased Mn concentration in the fibrous roots. Foliar N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations were adequate and did not appear to limit plant growth. Manganese concentrations in solution had very little effect on Fe, Zn, or B concentration. Manganese concentration was higher in the foliage than in fibrous roots. Plant roots showed browning at the higher (10 or 100 mg Mn/liter) concentrations in solution, which indicated the presence of oxidized Mn. Characteristic toxicity symptoms were observed in plants receiving 2.5 (moderate), 10, or 100 mg Mn/liter in solution.
Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate 5 levels of Mn (0.00025 to 0.1 g.L-1) on Mn toxicity or tolerance of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] grown in a modified half Hoagland's solution. The presence of oxidized Mn on the roots and leaves was demonstrated by the blue staining test with benzidene and the solubility and bleaching of oxidized Mn in the oxalic-sulfuric acid solution. Both storage root and foliage fresh and dry weights were highest at Mn concn of 0.00025 g.L-1 in the nutrient solution, while fibrous root dry weight was highest with 0.01 g.L-1 Mn in the solution. More Mn accumulated in foliage than in fibrous roots for all levels of Mn evaluated. N, P, and K concn in foliage was highest at a Mn concn of 0.1 g.L-1 Mn in the solution. Foliage dry weight was preserved up to a high Mn level of about 2700 ug. g-1 Mn in tissues, while taht for storage roots was preserved up to a high Mn level of about 1000 ug. g-1 in the tissues. Deposition of oxidized Mn was observed on fibrous roots particularly at the highest Mn levels in the nutrient solution.
The influence of Azospirillum inoculation on sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was evaluated in combination with fertilizer N rates of 0, 40, and 80 kg·ha-1. Plants were inoculated with 5 ml of the inoculant at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after transplanting. Inoculation increased total and marketable yield by 12% and 17%, respectively, in 1984 and 5% and 22%, respectively in 1985. Higher storage root yields were accompanied by lower foliage yields, which suggested the inoculant may enhance storage root growth at the expense of foliage growth on soils with low to moderate N levels (40 to 80 kg·ha-1). Storage root N (1984 and 1985) and leaf N (1985) were higher for 40 kg N/ha with inoculation than with inoculation alone (treatments 4 vs. 2), which suggested that Azospirillum plus fertilizer N increased the N content of the plants.
Fertilizer placement under plastic was studied on 2 tomato cultivars (`TI-130' and `Floradade') during 1989. Treatments were 1, 2 or 3 increments of fertilizer broadcast, banded, broadcast/banded of banded with 1 or 2 sidedressings and a check. Fertilizer applied was NPK at 135-90-84 kg·ha-1 as a ammonium nitrate, triple superphosphate and muriate of potash, 10cm to each side of the plants and 10cm deep. Vine, total, marketable and early yields for lower rates either Br or Ba were as good as those of the full rate Br or Ba with 2 sidedressings (Ba/SD2). Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg for `TI-130' were not affected by placement. The Ba/SD2 placement Increased leaf N for `Floradade' but leaf Ca was reduced in all treatments vs the check. Leaf Mn was increased markedly by placements involving broadcasting at all rates.
An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse environment to determine the relationship between type of cutting and planting depth on sweetpotato [Ipomea batatas (L) Lam] storage root yield using the nutrient film technique. Vine cuttings of the cultivar 'TI-155' were planted in growth channels (122×15×15 cm) in modified half Hoagland's solution. Treatments consisted of cuttings with all leaves and shoot apex removed with two nodes inserted (2NB), cuttings with all leaves and shoot apex removed with five nodes inserted (5NB). and cuttings with four leaves and the shoot apex remaining with two nodes inserted (2NB-L). Plants were harvested 130 days after planting and yield data was taken. Plants in 2NB-L had a significantly lower percent dry matter than those of 2NB. Neither cutting type nor planting depth affected yield or yield related parameters.
One of the major objective of growth analysis data is to provide a basic understanding of some of the mechanisms that affect plant growth. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects on several growth parameters when plants are grown in an NFT system. Vine cuttings (15 cm length) of the sweetpotato cultivar ``Georgia Jet” was grown in a closed NFT system for a period of 120 days. Nutrient was supplied in a modified half-strength Hoagland's solution with a N:K ratio of 1:2.4. Destructive harvesting of plants occurred at 14 day intervals at which time plants were separated into their various component parts and analyzed for dry weight accumulation, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Results showed dry weight distribution within the plant had a linear response for all component part evaluated. Greatest contributors to total plant dry weight was stem followed by leaves, fibrous roots, buds and flowers. However, once storage root production occurred it contributed the largest percentage to total plant dry weight. LAI was optimum at 80 days after planting (DAP) while CGR and RGR fluctuated throughout the growing season. Initially NAR was higher in foliage than storage roots but declined once storage root enlargement began, suggesting a translocation of assimilates to storage root.
Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of spacing within and between growth channels on the yield of `TI-1551 sweet potatoes grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique (NFT). Spacings within channels were 12.7, 17.8 and 25.4 cm whereas between growth channels the spacings were 12.7, 25.4 and 38.1 cm. Vine cuttings (15 cm) placed in each channel (0.15×0.15×1.2 m) were supplied with a modified half-Hoagland solution and grown for 120 days. Storage root number, fresh and dry weights and foliage fresh and dry weights tended to increase as spacing between channels increased. Spacing of plants within channels had no significant effect on any sweet potato growth responses.
Hydroponic experiments using the nutrient film technique (NFT) were conducted in environmental growth chambers to evaluate the response of two sweet potato cultivars, `Georgia Jet' and `TI-155', to two photoperiod and temperature regimes. Vine cuttings of these cultivars were planted in growth channels supplied with modified half-Hoagland nutrient solution using NFT. Plants were subjected to a 24 h photoperiod or a 12:12 h light:dark photoperiod, a constant temperature of 28C or light:dark temperature of 28/22C. Plants were exposed to irradiance levels of 400 umol m-2 s-1 at canopy level and 70% RH. Storage root fresh and dry weights were increased for both cultivars under the 24 h photoperiod at the 28C constant temperature. `Georgia Jet' storage root numbers were not affected by any treatment while those for `TI-155' were reduced under continuous light for both temperature regimes. Foliage fresh and dry weights were not affected by any treatment.
Tuskegee University is conducting research on salad crops as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) goal of supporting humans on near-term space missions, such as on the International Space Station. Small areas of salad crops are ideal candidates for growing in limited volumes, and would provide a source of fresh food to enhance the crew's nutrition. Baseline controlled environment studies were initiated to evaluate the response of eight carrot cultivars (`Baby Mini', `Nantes Touchan', `Danvers 126', `Kundulus', `Nanco Hybrid', `Thumbelina', `Early Nantes', and `Juwarot') to growth and yield in hydroponics. Seeds were sown in moist arcillite and transplanted into growth troughs (0.15 × 0.15 × 1.2 m) after 18 days in reach-in growth chambers, and nutrients continuously supplied by a half-Hoagland solution. Growth chambers conditions included 300 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux, 16/8 photoperiod, a constant 25 °C and relative humidity of 50%. Plants were harvested at about 80 days. All eight cultivars grew well in the hydroponic system. Seven cultivars produced greater shoot fresh than root mass except `Baby Mini', which showed the reverse. `Danvers 126', followed by `Nanco Hybrid' and `Nantes Touchan', produced highest root yields. The β-carotene content varied by cultivars. The highest level of 10,400 IU/100 g was obtained for `Thumbelina', followed by `Baby Mini' (8040 IU/100 g), `Juwarot' (6160 IU/100g), and `Early Nantes' (5210 IU/100 g), and the lowest by `Nantes Touchan' (3510 IU/100 g). These results show that while carrots adapted well to growth in hydroponics, carotene, a major nutrient, was at relatively low levels.
Growth chamber experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of irradiance and daily light period on storage root yield and leaf elemental concentration of two sweetpotato cultivars grown hydroponically by use of the nutrient film technique (NFT). Stem cuttings (15 cm) of cv. Whatley/Loretan and Georgia Jet were grown in NFT channels (0.15 × 0.15 × 1.2 m) in reach-in growth chambers under light period/irradiance combinations of 18 h: 300 μmol·m−2·s−1 or 9 h: 600 μmol·m−2·s−1 photosynthetic photon flux. Temperature was 28/22 °C light/dark with a relative humidity of 70% ± 5%. Storage root and foliage yields were greater in both cultivars exposed to a longer daily light period and lower irradiance. The main effect of cultivar indicated that storage root yield was significantly greater among plants of ‘Whatley/Loretan’ compared with that of ‘Georgia Jet’, whereas foliage yield was similar between cultivars. Leaves of plants grown under longer daily light period and lower irradiance had significantly lower concentrations of all elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, calcium, boron, and zinc, except for calcium, manganese, and boron. There were no significant differences in leaf elemental concentration between cultivars. Thus, a longer daily light and lower irradiance enhanced biomass production of sweetpotato but reduced leaf elemental concentration probably because of a “dilution” effect.