Excised embryos from Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax., A. mandshuricum Maxim., A. maximowiczianum Mig. (A. nikoense Maxim.) and A. triflorum Kom. germinated within 21 days when incubated in a lighted environment on wick cultures moistened with a solution of 10 mg/liter gibberellic acid (GA3). Cotyledon and epicotyl growth of A. maximowiczianum embryos were greatest when treated with GA3. Embryos of A. maximowiczianum incubated with 6-ben-zylamino purine (BA) or 6-furfurylamino purine (kinetin) developed the longest roots while those treated with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) remained tightly coiled and dormant. Excised embryos incubated in darkness or intact seeds placed in all treatments failed to germinate. In A. maximowiczianum 3 sites of dormancy delay germination: pericarp, seed coat, and embryo.
The Allen Centennial Gardens are instructional gardens managed by the Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Twenty-two garden styles exist on the 2.5-acre (1.0-ha) campus site with a primary focus on herbaceous annual, biennial and perennial ornamental plants. The gardens are used for instruction mostly by the Department of Horticulture and secondly by departments of art, botany, entomology, landscape architecture, plant pathology, and soils. Class work sessions are limited due to the gardens' prominence on campus, high aesthetic standards, space restrictions, and large class sizes. Undergraduate students are the primary source of labor for plant propagation, installation and maintenance; management; and preparation of interpretive literature. Work experience at the gardens assists students with obtaining career advances in ornamental horticulture. Future challenges include initiating greater faculty use of the gardens for instruction and creating innovative ways to use the gardens to enhance instruction.
Axillary shoot growth on scions of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Klotz) was regulated by grafting nonbranching (‘C-1’) and self-branching (‘Amy’, ‘Glory’, ‘Super Rochford’) cultivars on each other. Branching of ‘C-1’ was increased when scions were grafted onto self-branching rootstocks and branching was decreased on self-branching cultivars grafted onto ‘C-1’ rootstocks. Initiation of axillary bud growth was promoted on younger nodes of ‘C-1’ when grafted onto self-branching rootstocks. Increased branching propensity of ‘C-1’ scions grafted onto rootstocks of self-branching types continued even after vegetative cuttings were rooted. Axillary bud activity was unaffected by leaf removal. Results suggest that axillary bud activity is governed by shoot and root interactions of the plant and that axillary shoot growth is governed by some endogenous factors translocated from the roots across the graft union to the shoot.
Stomatal density during plant development and inheritance of the trait were investigated with the goal of utilizing stomatal density as a correlated trait to cutflower postharvest longevity in Antirrhinum majus L. Inbred P1 (stomatal index = 0.2) was hybridized to inbred P2 (stomatal index = 0.3) to produce F1 (P1 × P2), which was backcrossed to each parent producing BCP1 (F1 × P1) and BCP2 (F1 × P2). P1, P2, F1, BCP1, and BCP2 were used to examine changes in stomatal density with plant development and early generation inheritance. An F2 (F1 self-pollinated), and F3, F4, and F5 families, derived by self-pollination and single seed descent, were used to obtain information on advanced generation inheritance. Stomatal density was stable over time and with development of leaves at individual nodes after seedlings reached two weeks of age. Therefore, stomatal density can be evaluated after two weeks of plant development from a leaf at any node. Stomatal density is quantitatively inherited with narrow sense heritabilities of h2F2:F3 = 0.47 to 0.49, h2F3:F4 = 0.37 ± 0.06 to 0.60 ± 0.07, and h2F4:F5 = 0.47 ± 0.07 to 0.50 ± 0.07.
Cotyledons from developing 6- to 8-week-old embryos of Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. (blazing star) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 0.4, 4.4, or 44.4 μm BA or 0, 0.2, 2.2, or 22.2 μm TDZ to induce adventitious shoot formation. The highest percentage of cotyledons forming the most shoots was on medium containing 2.2 μm TDZ. Cotyledon-derived callus cultured on medium containing 4.4 μm BA formed ≈16 times more adventitious shoots than on 2.2 μm TDZ. Adventitious shoots derived from cotyledons or callus produced roots when placed on MS medium containing 5.0 μm IBA. Regenerated plants that flowered in the field appeared homogeneous. Chemical names used: N6-benzyladenine (BA), thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
Three percent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was diluted with deionized water (dH2O) to 0.75%, 0.38%, 0.19%, 0.09%, or 0.05% H2O2 plus 1.5% sucrose for use in evaluation of Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) cut flowers. Other vase solutions used as controls included; 300 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) plus 1.5% sucrose; dH2O plus 1.5% sucrose; and dH2O. A completely random design with 7 replicationss was used. Flowering stems of three commercial inbreds and one F1 hybrid of snapdragon were cut when the first five basal florets opened. Each stem was placed in an individual glass bottle containing one of the eight different treatments. Flowering stems were discarded when 50% of the open florets wilted, turned brown, or dried. Postharvest life was determined as the number of days from stem cutting to discard. Addition of H2O2 to vase solutions at rates of 0.19 and 0.09% resulted in postharvest life not different from that obtained with 8-HQC plus sucrose. Hydrogen peroxide plus sucrose extended postharvest life of snapdragon cut flowers 6 to 8 days over dH2O and 5 to 7 days over dH2O plus 1.5% sucrose.
One-centimeter hypocotyl explants from 2-week-old Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) seedlings germinated and grown in vitro under 12-h cool-white fluorescent light and 12 h dark or 24 h dark were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0, 0.44, 2.22, 4.44, 8.88, or 44.4 μM N6-benzyladenine (BA). Cultures were maintained under the light/dark regime at 25°C. After 2 weeks, adventitious shoots were counted. A shoot was considered adventitious and counted if a stem and leaf developed. Shoots developed along the entire length of the hypocotyl sections. Mean shoot production per hypocotyl explant ranged from 2.4 to 6.1 shoots when seedlings were germinated and grown in 24 h darkness and 2.2 to 10.9 shoots when started in the light/dark regime. Highest shoot counts were attained /from hypocotyl explants when seedlings were germinated and grown under the light/dark regime for 2 weeks and transferred to 2.22, 4.44, or 8.88 μM BA. Shoot development appeared normal at the 2.22 and 4.44 μM level, while at 8.88 μM BA, development was slightly abnormal along with slightly more callus production.
Cut flowers of a short(S) lived (3 days) inbred, a long(L) lived (15 days) inbred and their hybrid (F1, 7.3 days) of Antirrhinum majus L. were evaluated for water loss when held in deionized water under continuous fluorescent light at 25°C. Flowering stems for water loss evaluation were harvested when the basal five to six florets expanded. Cut stems were placed in narrowed-necked bottles with the open area between the stem and bottle sealed with Parafilm. Stem weight and water weight in the bottle were taken every 24 h. Water loss evaluation was continued until 50% of the open florets on the flowering stem wilted or turned brown. Overall, water loss from all accessions was highest 24 h postharvest, declined rapidly between 24 to 96 h, and remained unchanged throughout the remainder of postharvest life. Between 24 to 96 h, the slope of the line for water loss was greatest for L, least for S, and intermediate for the F1. It appears that longest postharvest life of A. majus is associated with the most rapid decline of water loss immediately postharvest to a level, which remains constant.
Flowering stems from three commercial inbreds and their F1 hybrids of Antirrhinum majus L. were cut when the first eight basal florets opened. Tops of the stems were removed above the eighth floret and florets were removed leaving two, four, six, or eight open florets on a stem. A completely random design with 10 replications was used. Flowering stems were placed in plastic storage containers 35 × 23 × 14 cm (L × W × H) with 2.5 L deionized water for postharvest evaluation. Evaluation took place under continuous cool-white fluorescent light (9 μmol·m–2·s–1) at 24°C Postharvest life was determined as the number of days from cutting to discard when 50% of the open florets on a flowering stem wilted, turned brown, or dried. Results showed postharvest life increased as the number of open florets on a stem decreased. Mean postharvest life increased as much as 4.7 days when only two florets remained on a stem. These results indicate a direct relationship between number of florets on a cut flower stem and postharvest life.
The role of the number of adventitious roots of Malus domestics Borkh. `Gala' microcuttings in vitro on ex vitro root and shoot growth was investigated. Root initiation treatments consisted of IBA at 0, 0.15, 1.5, 15, and 150 μm in factorial combination with media at pH 5.5, 6.3, and 7.0. IBA concentrations significantly influenced final root count and shoot fresh and dry weights, but not plant height, leaf count, or root fresh and dry weights at 116 days. Between 0 and 0.15 μm IBA, final root counts were similar, but at 1.5, 15, and 150 μm IBA, root counts increased by 45%, 141%, and 159%, respectively, over the control. The pH levels did not affect observed characteristics significantly. There was no significant interaction between main effects. A significant positive linear relationship was found between initial and final root count. The results suggest a limited association between high initial adventitious root count and subsequent growth. Chemical name used: 1 H -indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).