Field studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Belle Glade, FL, to evaluate the critical period of weed control (CPWC) in snap bean grown on organic soils in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of South Florida. Treatments consisting of increasing duration of weed interference and weed-free period were imposed at weekly intervals from 0 to 7 weeks after emergence (WAE) of snap bean. The beginning and end of the CPWC based on 2.5%, 5%, and 10% snap bean acceptable yield loss (AYL) levels were determined by fitting log-logistic and Gompertz models to represent increasing duration of weed interference and weed-free period, respectively. Based on 2.5% yield loss, the CPWC was 7.2 weeks long, beginning 1.2 (cotyledon and unifoliate leaf) and ending 8.4 WAE (mid-pod set, 50% of pods reached maximum length). At 5% yield loss, the CPWC was 5.0 weeks, beginning 1.7 (first to second trifoliate leaf) and ending 6.7 WAE (mid-flower to early pod set, 50% of flowers open and one pod reached maximum length). At 10% yield loss, the CPWC was 3.0 weeks, beginning 2.2 (second trifoliate leaf) and ending 5.2 WAE (early flowering, one open flower). Based on these results, the beginning of CPWC was hastened, whereas the end was delayed at different yield loss levels showing that acceptable weed control in snap bean on organic soils in the EAA is required throughout much of the growing season to minimize yield loss.
Dennis C. Odero and Alan L. Wright
Dennis C. Odero, Jose V. Fernandez, and Nikol Havranek
Field experiments were conducted to determine weed control and radish (Raphanus sativus) response to S-metolachlor on organic soil in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) using a dose–response bioassay. S-metolachlor was applied preemergence at 0.35, 0.7, 1.4, 2.8, 5.6, and 11.2 kg·ha−1. The rate of S-metolachlor required to provide 90% weed control (ED90) and result in 5% and 10% radish injury were determined by fitting a three-parameter log-logistic model. The ED90 values for common lambsquarters, spiny amaranth, and fall panicum control were 2.7, 1.6, and 1.2 kg·ha−1 of S-metolachlor, respectively, at 14 days after treatment (DAT). At 28 DAT, the ED90 values were 3.8, 1.9, and 1.5 kg·ha−1 of S-metolachlor, respectively. Injury on radish increased as S-metolachlor rates increased with maximum injury of 24% and 19% at 14 and 28 DAT, respectively. S-metolachlor at 2.1 and 3.1 kg·ha−1 at 14 DAT and 2.6 and 3.7 kg·ha−1 at 28 DAT would result in 5% and 10% radish injury, respectively. Radish yield decreased with increasing rates of S-metolachlor. At the proposed S-metolachlor use rate of 1.4 kg·ha−1 for root crops, radish yield was 80% of the weed-free yield probably resulting from competition from common lambsquarters, which was controlled 74%. These results show that preemergence S-metolachlor would provide effective control of spiny amaranth and fall panicum in radish on organic soils of the EAA at the proposed use rate for root crops while about three times the proposed use rate would be required to provide effective common lambsquarters control. This implies that infestation of common lambsquarters on radish fields on organic soils will not be effectively controlled by S-metolachlor at the proposed use rate resulting in yield reduction.
Debalina Saha, S. Christopher Marble, Brian J. Pearson, Héctor E. Pérez, Gregory E. MacDonald, and Dennis C. Odero
Mulch is often applied in landscape planting beds for weed control, but little research has focused specifically on mulch and preemergence (PRE) herbicide combinations. The objectives of this research were to determine the efficacy of herbicide + mulch combinations and which factors significantly affected weed control, including herbicide formulation and posttreatment irrigation volumes. Additional objectives were to determine efficacy derived from mulch or herbicides used alone under herbicide + mulch combinations and to identify differences in the additive (herbicide + mulch combinations) or singular (herbicide or mulch) effects compared with the use of herbicides or mulch only. Large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), garden spurge (Euphorbia hirta), and eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) were used as bioassay species for prodiamine, dimethenamid-P + pendimethalin, and indaziflam efficacy, respectively. The experiment consisted of a factorial treatment arrangement of two herbicide formulations (granular or spray applied), three mulch types [hardwood chips (HWs), pine bark (PB), and pine straw (PS)], two mulch depths (1 and 2 inches), and three levels of one-time, posttreatment irrigation volumes (0.5, 1, and 2 inches). Three sets of controls were used: the first set included three mulch types applied at two depths receiving only 0.5-inch irrigation volume, the second set included only two herbicide formulations and three one-time irrigation volumes, whereas the last set received no treatment (no herbicide or mulch) and only 0.5-inch irrigation volume. High levels of large crabgrass and garden spurge control (88% to 100%) were observed with all herbicide + mulch combinations evaluated at mulch depths of 1 inch or greater. When comparing mulch types, the best eclipta control was achieved with hardwood at 2 inches depth. The spray formulation of indaziflam outperformed the granular formulation in most cases when used alone or in combination with mulch. Overall, the results showed that spray formulations of prodiamine and dimethenamid-P + pendimethalin were more effective than granular formulations when applied alone, whereas indaziflam was more effective as a spray formulation when used both alone and in combination with mulch. Increasing irrigation volume was not a significant factor for any of the herbicide + mulch combinations when evaluating overall weed control.