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- Author or Editor: Dean A. Kopsell x
Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) ranks highest among vegetable crops for lutein and beta-carotene carotenoids, which function as antioxidants in disease prevention. Nitrogen (N) rate and N form influence plant growth and alter pigment composition and accumulation. The objectives of these experiments were to investigate the effect of N rate and form on biomass and accumulation of plant pigments in the leaf tissues of kale. Three kale cultivars were grown using nutrient solution culture. In the first study, N treatment rates were 6, 13, 26, 52, and 105 mg·L–1, at a constant NH4-N:NO3-N ratio. Kale biomass increased linearly in response to increasing N rate. On a fresh weight basis, lutein and beta-carotene were not affected by N rate. However, carotenoids calculated on a dry weight basis increased linearly in response to increasing N rate. In a second study, kale was grown under: 100% NH4-N:0% NO3-N, 75% NH4-N:25% NO3-N, 50% NH4-N:50% NO3-N, 25% NH4-N:75% NO3-N, and 0% NH4-N:100% NO3-N, at a N rate of 105 mg·L–1. Linear increases in biomass were observed for each kale cultivar as percentage of NO3-N increased. Lutein concentrations increased 155%, 73%, and 39% for `Toscano', `Winterbor', and `Redbor' kale, respectively, as N form changed 0% NO3-N to 100% NO3-N. Concentration of leaf beta-carotene increased linearly in response to increasing NO3-N in each cultivar tested. Nitrogen management should be considered in crop production programs designed to increase the concentrations of nutritionally important carotenoids.
A major decision in producing onions with mild flavor on low sulfur soils is determining when to stop applying SO4 -2 to the crop. Sulfate (SO4 -2) is necessary for good early growth, but high levels of available SO4 -2 late in the season increase bulb pungency. The objective of this research was to determine how sequentially reducing the availability of SO4 -2 during onion growth and development would affect flavor intensity and quality of Granex-type onions. Starting 77 days before harvest, SO4 -2 concentrations were lowered from 1 mm to 0.05 mm on different blocks of onions in a greenhouse experiment at bi-weekly intervals. Total leaf and bulb S were measured at harvest to monitor S accumulation as SO4 -2 fertility was sequentially reduced. Bulbs were harvested and analyzed for flavor precursors and their biosynthetic intermediates, gross flavor intensity as measured by enzymatically developed pyruvic acid (EPY), and soluble solids content. As SO4 -2 fertility reductions were delayed during the experiment, total leaf and bulb S increased linearly. In addition, bulb EPY concentrations increased linearly as SO4 -2 reduction was delayed, indicating increases in overall flavor intensity. While the total concentration of flavor precursors did not significantly change in response to lowering SO4 -2 fertility during the experiment, the concentrations of MCSO to 1-PRENCSO did. MCSO concentration decreased and then increased in a quadratic manner. MCSO produces fresh onion and cabbage like flavors. 1-PRENCSO, on the other hand, increased linearly as the high SO4 -2 fertility level was extended through bulb maturation. Increasing concentrations of 1-PRENCSO causes onions to have significantly more heat and mouth burn when eaten. Reducing available SO4 -2 49 days prior to harvest coincided with a reduction in EPY and a change in the flavor biosynthetic pathway that appeared to be associated with the metabolic changes occurring with the onset of bulbing. Chemical names used: enzymatically developed pyruvic acid (EPY); methyl cysteine sulfoxide (MCSO); 1-propenyl cysteine sulfoxide (1-PRENCSO).
Vegetable crops can be significant sources of nutritionally important dietary carotenoids and Brassica vegetables are sources that also exhibit antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity. The family Brassicaceae contains a diverse group of plant species commercially important in many parts of the world. The six economically important Brassica species are closely related genetically. Three diploid species (B. nigra, B. rapa, and B. oleracea) are the natural progenitors of the allotetraploid species (B. juncea, B. napus, and B. carinata). The objective of this study was to characterize the accumulation of important dietary carotenoid pigments among the genetically related Brassica species. The HPLC quantification revealed significant differences in carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment accumulation among the Brassica species. Brassica nigra accumulated the highest concentrations of lutein, 5,6-epoxy lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin. The highest concentrations of beta-carotene and total chlorophyll were found in B. juncea. Brassica rapa accumulated the highest concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin. For each of the pigments analyzed, the diploid Brassica species accumulated higher concentrations, on average, than the amphidiploid species. Brassicas convey unique health attributes when consumed in the diet. Identification of genetic relationships among the Brassica species would be beneficial information for improvement programs designed to increase carotenoid values.
Therapeutic compounds in herbal crops are gaining recent attention. Sweet basil (Ocimumbasilicum L.) is a popular culinary herbal crop grown for both fresh and dry leaf markets. Recently, basil (unidentified cultivar) was shown to rank highest among spices and herbal crops for xanthophylls carotenoids. This class of carotenoids is associated with decreased risks of certain cancer and age-related eye diseases. The research goal for the current study was to characterize the concentrations of nutritionally important carotenoid pigments among popular varieties of basil. Eight cultivars of sweet basil (`Genovese', `Italian Large Leaf', `Nufar', `Red Rubin', `Osmin Purple', `Spicy Bush', `Cinnamon', and `Sweet Thai') were grown in both field and greenhouse environments and evaluated for plant pigments using HPLC methodology. Environmental and cultivar differences were significant for all of the pigments analyzed. `Sweet Thai' accumulated the highest concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene carotenoids, while `Italian Large Leaf' had the lowest concentrations. Comparing the two environments, cultivar means for carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments were higher in the field environment when expressed on both a fresh and dry weight basis. Exceptions were found only for the purple leaf basils (`Osmin Purple' and `Red Rubin'). Positive and highly significant correlations existed between carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments in both environments. This study demonstrates that sweet basil can accumulate high levels of nutritionally important carotenoids in both field and greenhouse environments.
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a popular culinary herbal crop grown for fresh or dry leaf, essential oil, and seed markets. Recently, basil was shown to rank highest among spices and herbal crops for xanthophyll carotenoids, which are associated with decreased risks of cancer and age-related eye diseases. The research goal for the current study was to characterize the concentrations of nutritionally important carotenoid pigments in popular varieties of basil. Eight cultivars of sweet basil (`Genovese', `Italian Large Leaf', `Nufar', `Red Rubin', `Osmin Purple', `Spicy Bush', `Cinnamon', and `Sweet Thai') were grown in both field and greenhouse environments and evaluated for plant pigments using HPLC methodology. Environmental and cultivar differences were observed for all of the pigments analyzed. `Sweet Thai' accumulated the highest concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene carotenoids in the field, while `Osmin Purple' accumulated the highest carotenoid concentrations in the greenhouse. Comparing the two environments, cultivar levels for carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments were higher in the field environment when expressed on both a fresh and dry weight basis. Exceptions were found only for the purple leaf basils (`Osmin Purple' and `Red Rubin'). Positive correlations existed between carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments in both environments. This study demonstrates sweet basil accumulates high levels of nutritionally important carotenoids in both field and greenhouse environments.
Plant growing systems have consistently utilized the standard Earth day as the radiation cycle for plant growth. However, the radiation cycle can easily be controlled by using automated systems to regulate the exact amount of time plants are exposed to irradiation (and darkness). This experiment investigated the influence of different radiation cycles on plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment accumulation in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C). Kale plants were grown in growth chambers in nutrient solution culture under radiation cycle treatments of 2, 12, 24, and 48 h, with 50% irradiance and 50% darkness during each time period. Total irradiation throughout the experiment was the same for each treatment. Radiation cycle treatments significantly affected kale fresh mass, dry mass, chlorophyll a and b, lutein, and beta-carotene. Maximum fresh mass occurred under the 2-h radiation cycle treatment. The maximum dry mass occurred under the 12-h radiation cycle treatment, which coincided with the maximum accumulation of lutein, beta-carotene, and chlorophyll a, expressed on a fresh mass basis. The minimum fresh mass occurred during the 24 h radiation cycle treatment, which coincided with the largest chlorophyll b accumulation. Increased levels of chlorophyll, lutein and beta-carotene were not required to achieve maximum fresh mass production. Environmental manipulation of carotenoid production in kale is possible. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase their nutritional contribution to the diet.
The affects of selenium (Se) on sulfur (S) uptake and metabolism were evaluated in `Granex 33' onions. Plants were grown in a half-strength Hoagland's solution and modified with increasing Se fertility. Selenium was added as sodium selenate. During growth, plants were sampled biweekly and divided into root, bulb, and foliar tissue. Tissues were dried and ground for total S, and wet-ashed for total Se (GFAA). Selenium increased S uptake by onions. As Se increased in concentration, S utilization first increased then decreased in a quadratic trend.
Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) during leaf development in kale (Brassicaoleracea L. var. acephala D.C). Lutein and β-carotene are two plant-derived carotenoids that possess important human health properties. Diets high in these carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of cancer, cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration. Kale plants were growth-chamber grown in nutrient solution culture at 20 °C under 500 μmol·m-2·s-1 of irradiance. Pigments were measured in young (<1 week), immature (1-2 weeks), mature (2-3 weeks), fully developed (3-4 weeks) and senescing (>4 weeks) leaves. Significant differences were measured for all four pigments during leaf development. Accumulation of the pigments followed a quadratic trend, with maximum accumulation occurring between the first and third week of leaf age. The highest concentrations of lutein were recorded in 1- to 2-week-old leaves at 15.1 mg per 100 g fresh weight. The remaining pigments reached maximum levels at 2-3 weeks, with β-carotene at 11.6 mg per 100 g, chlorophyll a at 251.4 mg per 100 g, and chlorophyll b at 56.9 mg per 100 g fresh weight. Identifying changes in carotenoid and chlorophyll accumulation over developmental stages in leaf tissues is applicable to “baby” leafy greens and traditional production practices for fresh markets.
Controlled plant growing systems have consistently used the standard earth day as the radiation cycle for plant growth. However, the radiation cycle can be controlled using automated systems to regulate the exact amount of time plants are exposed to irradiation (and darkness). This experiment investigated the influence of different radiation cycle periods on plant growth and carotenoid accumulation in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.). Plants were grown in a controlled environment using nutrient solutions under radiation cycle treatments of 2, 12, 24 and 48 hours, with 50% irradiance and 50% darkness during each cycle. The radiation cycles significantly affected kale fresh weight, dry weight, percent dry matter, and the accumulation of lutein, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a and b. Maximum fresh weight occurred under the 2-hour radiation cycle treatment, whereas maximum dry weight occurred under the 12-hour treatment. Maximum accumulation of lutein, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a occurred with the 12-hour radiation cycle at values of 14.5 mg/100 g, 13.1 mg/100 g, and 263.3 mg/100 g fresh weight respectively. Maximum fresh weight production of the kale was not linked to increases in chlorophyll, lutein, or β-carotene. Consumption of fruit and vegetable crops rich in lutein and β-carotene carotenoids is associated with reduced risk of cancers and aging eye diseases. Increased carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops would therefore be expected to increase the value of these crops.
Carotenoids are secondary plant metabolites in vegetables known to be essential in the human diet and reported to confer various positive health-promoting effects when consumed. Brassica oleracea L. vegetables like kale, cabbage, and broccoli are recognized as excellent sources of dietary carotenoids. Broccoli has emerged as the most important B. oleracea crop in the United States and it likely supplies more carotenoids to the U.S. diet than the other crops of this species. However, very little is known about the general carotenoid profile of this important vegetable or the levels of specific carotenoids and how they might vary among genotypes. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess carotenoid profiles of different inbred broccoli heads; to assess chlorophyll concentrations measured simultaneously during carotenoid assays; to determine the relative effects of genotype versus environment in influencing head carotenoid levels; and to examine phenotypic correlations between carotenoid levels and other traits. Results show lutein to be the most abundant carotenoid in broccoli heads ranging from 65.3 to 139.6 μg·g−1 dry mass (DM) among nine inbreds tested in three environments. Genotype had a highly significant effect on lutein levels in broccoli heads and the ratio of σ2 g/σ2 p for this carotenoid was 0.84. Violaxanthin also exhibited a significant genotype effect, but it was found at lower levels (17.9 to 35.4 μg·g−1 DM) than lutein. β-carotene and neoxanthin were detected at levels similar to violaxanthin, but genotypic differences were not detected when all environments were compared. This was also true for antheraxanthin, which was detectable in all genotypes at lower levels (mean of 13.3 μg·g−1 DM) than the other carotenoids. Significant genotypic differences were observed for both chlorophyll a and b among the studied inbreds; however, no environment or genotype-by-environment effects were observed with these compounds. Results indicated that most carotenoids measured were positively and significantly correlated with one another, indicating that higher levels of one carotenoid were typically associated with higher levels of others. This study emphasizes the relative importance of lutein in broccoli heads and the key role that genotype plays with this compound, ultimately indicating that breeding cultivars with increased levels of this particular carotenoid may be feasible.