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David J. Williams and Rhonda Ferree

The State Of Illinois passed legislation banning landscape wastes deposition in land fills. Approximately 18% of all solid wastes going into Illinois landfills were landscape wastes including grass clippings, branch prunings, leaves and wood. A cooperative program between the Horticulture Department, the Cooperative Extension Service and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources was initiated to train county extension advisers, municipalities, and the consuming public on methods for landscape waste reduction and recycling.

Workshops, video tapes, Master Composters, mobile displays, fact sheets and a model municipal composting facility were developed. Publications and other educational materials will be displayed.

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Mana Libran and David J. Williams

Leca clay pebbles were characterized and tested as a possible growing-medium for use in floriculture production systems that recycle irrigation water. Leca clay pebbles are light porous particles made by heating clay. X-ray diffraction tests indicate that high manufacturing temperatures (1100C) result in final particles composed primarily of quartz. Water-holding capacity was determined by pressure plate apparatus at eight pressures. Leca particles that were 4 to 8 mm retained more water than particles sized 12 to 18 mm. The bulk density of the particles were 0.43 and 0.37 g/cc for the 48-mm and the 12- to 18-mm particles, respectively. The pH of the leca particles was 7.77. The cation exchange capacity of the leca particles was relatively low compared to a standard soilless growing medium of 1 pine bark: 1 peat: 1 perlite (by volume). Leca particles have a CEC of o.82 me/100 g Ca and 6.36 me/100 g K, where the CEC of the previously mentioned soilless.medium was 24.21 me/100g Ca and 30.08 me/100 g K. Leca clay pebbles were tested as growing medium for the production of geraniums (Pelargonium hortorum) stock plants.

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David J. Williams and Michelle Antoinetti

Newspaper was pelletized and tested as a peat moss substitute in growing media used for producing bedding plants and woody ornamentals in containers. Varying amounts of urea was added to the newspaper prior to pelletization to improve the C:N ratio of the pellets Newsprint had a C:N ratio of 800:1. One quart of a 28% nitrogen solution per ton of paper consistently changed the C:N ratio to 400: 1 Additional quantities of the 28% N solution did not lower the C:N ration due to volatilization. The addition granular urea at 5.0 lbs. and 10.0 lbs. of urea per 300 lbs of newsprint altered the C:N ratio to 50:1 and 18:1 respectively. Media containing pelletized paper expanded about 40% in volume when water was added Following the first leaching electrical conductivity of the leachate was slightly elevated when compared to the check. In nine subsequent leachings the electrical conductivity was not significantly different than the check. The pH of the leachate averaged 7.2

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Rhonda J. Ferree and David J. Williams

Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), private applicators who purchase and use restricted use pesticides (RUP's) are required to obtain certification. The Cooperative Extension Service has been assigned the responsibility of informing and educating those applicators about the safe and precise use of pesticides. In Illinois, area Agriculture advisors are responsible for the training. They are supported by State staff. Support is provided to area advisors through development of several teaching medias. A Private Applicator Training manual is the main educational media. That is supported by a slide set and script, videos, demonstration kits, handouts, and overheads. Trainers are encouraged to have students use workbooks, which were developed to follow the slide set, during training sessions. Additional support is provided through a newletter, equipment and video loans, advertising, meeting site rental, and yearly program updates. Train-the-Trainer classes are provided as needed. Trainers have been surveyed as to the quality of exiting and the need for new educational materials. Examples of publications and teaching materials will be on display.

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David J. Williams and Karim H. Al-Juboory

University of Illinois, Department of Horticulture, Plant Science Lab, 1201 S. Dorner, Urbana, IL.

Calli were initiated from immature inflorescences of selected cultivars of Hosta in the light on Hosta initiation medium (Carolina Biological Supply Company, 1986). Three cultivars, Francee, Birchwood Park's Gold, and Wide Brim Sum & Substance, produced microshoots. The calli were compact and green in color. The highest percentage of callus formation occurred with the Francee cultivar. Nakaiana, Golden Edger, Golden Scepter, Obscura, Sum & Substance, and Shade Fanfare produced only calli. The calli were transferred to modified Murashige and Skoog salts. The media containing 5 × 5 factorial combinations of NAA and BA (0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/l). The results show that media with NAA at 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l in combination with BA from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/l produced the highest number of microshoots per explant.

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David A. Grantz and Larry E. Williams

Leaf area development and canopy structure are important characteristics affecting yield and fruit quality of grapevines. Trellising systems and wide row spacing are common viticultural practices that violate key assumptions of currently available indirect methods of leaf area determination. We have developed a protocol for using a commercially available instrument to determine leaf area index (LAI) indirectly in a trellised vineyard. From knowledge of plant spacing, leaf area per vine can be calculated as required. A derived calibration equation resulted in a near 1:1 relationship (y = 0.00 + 1.00 X; r2 = 0.998) between actual and indirectly determined LAI over a range of LAI induced by irrigation treatments. The protocol involved covering 75% of the sensor with a manufacturer-supplied field of view delimiter and masking data from the outer three (of five) concentric radiation sensors. The protocol could form the basis for a general measurement technique, but may require local calibration.

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David Williams, John Jaminski, and Pat Bumpus

Food wastes were collected daily Monday through Saturday with approximately 25 tons of food waste delivered to the composting site each week. Collections sites included restaurants, super markets and a hospital. All food wastes were collected behind the counter to reduce paper and other extraneous materials. Food wastes were mixed with bulking agents in a ratio of 1 part leaves, 1 part woodchips to 1 part food waste by volume. Daily a bed of leaves and wood chips was prepared and covered with food waste, in rum the food wastes were capped with a mixture of wood chips and leaves to form a windrow. The windrow was turned three times a week with a scat style commercial compost turner. Oxygen content and temperature of the windrow were recorded daily. C:N ratio, pH, soluble nitrogen and volatile organic acids were determined monthly. At the end of the composting process, 90 days, Ni, Cd, Fe, Pb, Cr, Ar and Se levels in the compost were not present at toxic levels. Finished compost rested negative for salmonella and Fecal coliform pathogens.

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Jayesh Samtani, Gary Kling*, and David Williams

Conventional herbicide applications to container-grown landscape plants, often requires multiple spray applications of herbicides in a growing season and presents problems such as non-uniform application, leaching, run-off, environmental pollution, worker exposure and phytotoxicity to the landscape plants. The use of an organic herbicide carrier could help reduce some of the problems associated with spray applications. Landscape-leaf waste pellets were evaluated as a preemergent herbicide carrier for container-grown landscape plants. Isoxaben, prodiamine and pendimethalin were applied to Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum `Lisa', Euonymus fortunei `Coloratus' and Spiraea japonica `Neon Flash', at rates of 1.12, 2.25, and 2.25 kg·ha-1 active ingredient, respectively, with either water or landscape leaf waste pellets as a carrier. Portulaca oleracea, Senecio vulgaris, and Setaria faberi were seeded following treatment application. Visual ratings on efficacy and photoxicity to landscape plants, and shoot fresh and dry biomass were determined for both weeds and crop plants. Landscape leaf pellets served as an effective carrier for application of prodiamine and pendimethalin and combinations of these herbicides with isoxaben in controlling weeds. Leaf waste pellets as a carrier produced equivalent weed control and phytotoxicity ratings to conventional spray application of these herbicides, on both Chrysanthemum and Euonymus. The pellets did not make a consistently effective carrier for the application of isoxaben alone. Application of herbicides on leaf pellets could result in more uniform herbicide applications, minimize loss of herbicides to the environment and reduce the risk of herbicide contact with nursery workers.

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Karim H. Al-Juboory and David J. Williams

Three node stem cuttings of Algerian Ivy Hedera canariensis were sprayed with growth regulators to incipient runoff under greenhouse conditions. The results demonstrated that the combination of BA + GA4+7, (Promalin) promoted branching of Algerian Ivy better than applications of BA or GA4+7 alone. Plants treated with Atrinal developed more shoots per node than those treated with GA4+7, BA, or Promalin. Increasing concentration of Atrinal from 0 to 3000 ppm, also reduced branch length and leaf number for both pinched and unpinched plants. 2,3,5—triodobenzoic acid (TIBA) significantly increased the branching of Algerian Ivy, although plant shape was not commercially acceptable due to epinasity of the foliage.

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Kandy L. Walker and David J. Williams

Experiments in two consecutive years indicated that barnyardgrass (Echirzochloa crusgalli L.), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) reduced growth of container-grown `San Jose' juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `San Jose') 83 days after transplanting grass seedlings into the containers. Grass densities of one to six weeds per container reduced `San Jose' juniper growth. By 83 days of grass interference, juniper shoot dry weight was reduced as much as 43% by six weeds per container.