Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 44 items for

  • Author or Editor: David Williams x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Two formulations, 5G and 75WP, of methazole (2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazolidine-3,5 dione) applied at 1.7, 3.4 and 6.8 kg ai/ha effectively controlled Digitaria sanguinalis L. (large crabgrass) and Portulaca oleracea L. (common purslane) in container-grown Cotoneaster apiculata Rehd. & Wils., Euonymus kiautschovicus Loes. cv. Manhattan and Juniperus chinensis L. cv. San Jose. All rates of the 75WP formulation reduced the shoot and root dry wt of Cotoneaster and Euonymus.

Open Access

Experiments in two consecutive years indicated that barnyardgrass (Echirzochloa crusgalli L.), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) reduced growth of container-grown `San Jose' juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `San Jose') 83 days after transplanting grass seedlings into the containers. Grass densities of one to six weeds per container reduced `San Jose' juniper growth. By 83 days of grass interference, juniper shoot dry weight was reduced as much as 43% by six weeds per container.

Free access

Leaf area development and canopy structure are important characteristics affecting yield and fruit quality of grapevines. Trellising systems and wide row spacing are common viticultural practices that violate key assumptions of currently available indirect methods of leaf area determination. We have developed a protocol for using a commercially available instrument to determine leaf area index (LAI) indirectly in a trellised vineyard. From knowledge of plant spacing, leaf area per vine can be calculated as required. A derived calibration equation resulted in a near 1:1 relationship (y = 0.00 + 1.00 X; r2 = 0.998) between actual and indirectly determined LAI over a range of LAI induced by irrigation treatments. The protocol involved covering 75% of the sensor with a manufacturer-supplied field of view delimiter and masking data from the outer three (of five) concentric radiation sensors. The protocol could form the basis for a general measurement technique, but may require local calibration.

Free access

Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), private applicators who purchase and use restricted use pesticides (RUP's) are required to obtain certification. The Cooperative Extension Service has been assigned the responsibility of informing and educating those applicators about the safe and precise use of pesticides. In Illinois, area Agriculture advisors are responsible for the training. They are supported by State staff. Support is provided to area advisors through development of several teaching medias. A Private Applicator Training manual is the main educational media. That is supported by a slide set and script, videos, demonstration kits, handouts, and overheads. Trainers are encouraged to have students use workbooks, which were developed to follow the slide set, during training sessions. Additional support is provided through a newletter, equipment and video loans, advertising, meeting site rental, and yearly program updates. Train-the-Trainer classes are provided as needed. Trainers have been surveyed as to the quality of exiting and the need for new educational materials. Examples of publications and teaching materials will be on display.

Free access

The State Of Illinois passed legislation banning landscape wastes deposition in land fills. Approximately 18% of all solid wastes going into Illinois landfills were landscape wastes including grass clippings, branch prunings, leaves and wood. A cooperative program between the Horticulture Department, the Cooperative Extension Service and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources was initiated to train county extension advisers, municipalities, and the consuming public on methods for landscape waste reduction and recycling.

Workshops, video tapes, Master Composters, mobile displays, fact sheets and a model municipal composting facility were developed. Publications and other educational materials will be displayed.

Free access

Conventional herbicide applications to container-grown landscape plants, often requires multiple spray applications of herbicides in a growing season and presents problems such as non-uniform application, leaching, run-off, environmental pollution, worker exposure and phytotoxicity to the landscape plants. The use of an organic herbicide carrier could help reduce some of the problems associated with spray applications. Landscape-leaf waste pellets were evaluated as a preemergent herbicide carrier for container-grown landscape plants. Isoxaben, prodiamine and pendimethalin were applied to Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum `Lisa', Euonymus fortunei `Coloratus' and Spiraea japonica `Neon Flash', at rates of 1.12, 2.25, and 2.25 kg·ha-1 active ingredient, respectively, with either water or landscape leaf waste pellets as a carrier. Portulaca oleracea, Senecio vulgaris, and Setaria faberi were seeded following treatment application. Visual ratings on efficacy and photoxicity to landscape plants, and shoot fresh and dry biomass were determined for both weeds and crop plants. Landscape leaf pellets served as an effective carrier for application of prodiamine and pendimethalin and combinations of these herbicides with isoxaben in controlling weeds. Leaf waste pellets as a carrier produced equivalent weed control and phytotoxicity ratings to conventional spray application of these herbicides, on both Chrysanthemum and Euonymus. The pellets did not make a consistently effective carrier for the application of isoxaben alone. Application of herbicides on leaf pellets could result in more uniform herbicide applications, minimize loss of herbicides to the environment and reduce the risk of herbicide contact with nursery workers.

Free access

Newspaper was pelletized and tested as a peat moss substitute in growing media used for producing bedding plants and woody ornamentals in containers. Varying amounts of urea was added to the newspaper prior to pelletization to improve the C:N ratio of the pellets Newsprint had a C:N ratio of 800:1. One quart of a 28% nitrogen solution per ton of paper consistently changed the C:N ratio to 400: 1 Additional quantities of the 28% N solution did not lower the C:N ration due to volatilization. The addition granular urea at 5.0 lbs. and 10.0 lbs. of urea per 300 lbs of newsprint altered the C:N ratio to 50:1 and 18:1 respectively. Media containing pelletized paper expanded about 40% in volume when water was added Following the first leaching electrical conductivity of the leachate was slightly elevated when compared to the check. In nine subsequent leachings the electrical conductivity was not significantly different than the check. The pH of the leachate averaged 7.2

Free access

Food wastes were collected daily Monday through Saturday with approximately 25 tons of food waste delivered to the composting site each week. Collections sites included restaurants, super markets and a hospital. All food wastes were collected behind the counter to reduce paper and other extraneous materials. Food wastes were mixed with bulking agents in a ratio of 1 part leaves, 1 part woodchips to 1 part food waste by volume. Daily a bed of leaves and wood chips was prepared and covered with food waste, in rum the food wastes were capped with a mixture of wood chips and leaves to form a windrow. The windrow was turned three times a week with a scat style commercial compost turner. Oxygen content and temperature of the windrow were recorded daily. C:N ratio, pH, soluble nitrogen and volatile organic acids were determined monthly. At the end of the composting process, 90 days, Ni, Cd, Fe, Pb, Cr, Ar and Se levels in the compost were not present at toxic levels. Finished compost rested negative for salmonella and Fecal coliform pathogens.

Free access

Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon × C. transvaalensis) often are used for athletic fields as a result of their wear tolerance and recuperative ability. A wear tolerance study was conducted May 2007 through Nov. 2008 in Lexington, KY. Plots were managed as athletic turf and simulated traffic was applied during the Kentucky high school football seasons. The cultivars Quickstand, Tifway 419, Riviera, and Yukon grown in a sand-based medium were evaluated. Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) was applied at label rates and frequencies or left untreated. Overseeding treatments were perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) at 0, 546, and 1093 lb/acre pure live seed. Traffic treatments were applied with a Brinkman traffic simulator three times per week, once each Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, without regard to soil moisture status or weather for the periods 10 Sept. to 2 Nov. 2007 and 12 Sept. to 14 Nov. 2008. In both years of the study, the main effect of cultivar was significant (P < 0.05) in traffic tolerance (‘Tifway 419’ = ‘Riviera’ > ‘Quickstand’ = ‘Yukon’). Overseeding at the medium and high rates also provided significantly greater turf cover for the coarse-textured, more open cultivars (Quickstand and Yukon) over the fine-textured, more dense cultivars (Riviera and Tifway 419). Applications of TE did not significantly improve tolerance to simulated athletic traffic in either year of the study regardless of cultivar or overseeding treatment. Within the parameters of this study, data indicate that only cultivar has significant effects on tolerance to simulated traffic on a sand-based field. Overseeding treatments for the fine-textured, more dense cultivars and TE applications on sand-based field systems had no positive significant effects on tolerance to simulated traffic.

Full access

The use of seeded bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon) is increasing as athletic field and golf course turf. Anecdotal evidence indicates probable and important differences in germination rates among cultivars when established in late spring or early summer. Germination studies were completed in May 2011 in the Turfgrass Science Laboratory at the University of Kentucky on 19 commercially available seeded bermudagrass cultivars. Evaluations for germination rate and total germination under varying temperature regimes representing 20-year average day/night temperatures for seeding times from 15 May to 1 Aug. were conducted to quantify any differences in germination characteristics among cultivars as affected by temperature. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.0001) among cultivars in germination rate and total germination when grown under 20-year average day/night temperatures. The cultivars Casino Royale and Riviera consistently represented the fastest/slowest to germinate and highest/lowest total seeds germinated across all temperature regimes, respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.0001) were also observed within cultivars for total germination across the temperature regimes tested. The average temperatures of 15 May and 1 Aug. represented slowest/fastest to germinate and lowest/highest total seeds germinated across all temperature regimes, respectively.

Full access