Herbicides were applied to container grown landscape plants and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. Three preemergent herbicides were applied including: Oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.54 and 9.08 kg/ha, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) at 3.41 and 6.81 kg/ha and Oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.27 and 4.54 kg/ha. There was also a weedy and non-weedy control. The plant species included: Syringa vulgaris (Common Lilac), Wisteria sinensis (Chinese Wisteria), Phlox paniculata (Garden Phlox) and Dahlia hybrid (Garden Dahlia). They were all grown in number one containers in a media of soil, spaghnum peat moss, and plaster sand (1:2:1 by volume). All herbicides tested controlled weeds effectively with no phytotoxicity except with Phlox paniculata. Oryzalin resulted in a phytotoxic effect on Phlox paniculata at both the 1x and 2x rates.
James E. Klett and David Staats
David Staats and James E. Klett
In June 1991, a two year field study was initiated to examine if three non-turf groundcovers with reputations for using low amounts of water actually use less water than Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). Irrigation treatments were based on percentages of ET (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 0%) and calculated by the modified Penman equation. Results from the 1991 season indicate that at the 100% and 75% treatments Potentilla tabernaemontani and Cerastium tomentosum were significantly better than the other species in terms of establishment and vigor but quality declined significantly at rates below 75%. At the 50% rate both KBG and Sedum acre maintained good quality although growth was slow. At the 25% rate, quality of KBG significantly declined while Sedum acre maintained good quality. Quality of Sedum acre declined only slightly at the 0% treatment and would be a good alternative to KBG if water conservation was a high priority in the landscape.
James E. Klett and David Staats
During the 1999 season, preemergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scotts Ornamental Herbicide II) 3 and 6 lb ai/A, Napropamide (G) (Devrinol) 3 and 6 lb ai/A, Oryzalin (Surflan) 2 and 4 lb ai/A, Oxadiazon (Ronstar) 4 and 8 lb ai/A, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) 3 and 6 lb ai/A, Prodiamine (Barricade) 0.65 and 1.3 lb ai/A, Pendimethalin (Scotts Ornamental Weedgrass Control) 2 and 4 lb ai/A, Trifluralin (Treflan) 4 and 8 lb ai/A. Herbicides were applied to Penstemon mexicali `Red Rocks'™, Osteospermum barberiae compactum `Purple Mountain'™, Gazania linearis `Colorado Gold'™, Agastache rupestris, Diascia integerrima `Coral Canyon'™, and Zauschneria arizonica. All plant and herbicide combinations did not result in any significant decline in plant growth. All herbicides provided good weed control.
James E. Klett, David Staats and David Hillock
During the 1992 season six preemergent herbicides (Devrinol) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, Metolachlor (Pennant) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, Isoxaben (Gallery) at 1.1 and 2.3 kg/ha, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) at 3.4 and 13.6 kg/ha, Oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.8 and 4.5 kg/ha and Trifluralin (Treflan) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, were tested on Rudbeckia fulgida “Goldstrum”, Digitalis purpurea “Excelsior”, Chrysanthemum maximum “Alaska”, Stokesia laevis “Blue Danube”, and Geum hybrids “Mrs. Bradshaw”. Gallery at both rates resulted in visual phytotoxicity on Chrysanthemum, Digitalis and stunting in Rudbeckia at the 2.3 kg/ha rate. During the 1993 season the same herbicides plus Oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, were tested on Achillea tomentosa, and Thymus pseudolanuginosus. Gallery and Pennent at both rates resulted in visual phytotoxicity and stunted growth on Thymus pseudolanuginosus. Rout at the 13.6 kg/ha rate resulted in visual phytotoxicity on Achilles tomentosa.
James E. Klett, David Hillock and David Staats
Herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. During the 1995 season six preemergent herbicides [(in kg·ha–1) Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 4.5 and 9.1; Isoxaben (Gallery 75DF), 1.1 and 2.3; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 4.5 and 9.1; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 3.4 and 13.6; Oryzalin (Surflan AS), 2.8 and 4.5; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G) 4.5 and 9.1, were tested on Callirhoe involucrata, Delosperma nubigenum, Dendranthemum ×morifolium `Jennifer', Festuca cinerea `Sea Urchin', and Gypsophila paniculata `Fairy's Pink'. Isoxaben (both rates) resulted in visual phytotoxicity symptoms and sometimes death to Dendranthemum. Oxadiazon (9.1 kg·ha–1) and Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (both rates) resulted in plant chlorosis and necrosis to Delosperma soon after herbicide application, but plants outgrew herbicide damage. Napropamide (both rates), applied to Delosperma, resulted in less dry weight when compared to some of the other herbicide treatments. Oryzalin (4.5 kg·ha–1) resulted in visual phytotoxicity and less plant dry weight to Festuca. Data analysis revealed no significant differences in Callirhoe and Gypsophila. In general, most herbicides controlled weeds effectively.
David Staats, David Hillock and James E. Klett
Five preemergence herbicides were applied to seven herbaceous perennials to evaluate weed control efficacy and phytotoxicity. Different species were used each year. The species used during 1992 were coneflower (Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. `Goldstrum'), common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L. `Excelsior'), Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum ×superbum Bergmans `Alaska'), Stokes's aster (Stokesia laevis Greene `Blue Danube'), and avens (Geum Quellyon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw'). The species used in 1993 were woolly yarrow (Achillea tomentosa L.) and woolly thyme (Thymus pseudolanuginosus Ronn.). The herbicides and rates were napropamide (Devrinol 10G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; metolachlor (Pennant 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; oxyfluorfen+oryzalin (Rout 3G) at 3 and 12 lb a.i./acre; trifluralin (Treflan 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; and oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre. Plants were grown in no. 1 containers and weed seeds were sown onto the substrate surface. Two control treatments, no herbicides but with weeds (weedy control), and no weeds or herbicides (weed-free control) also were evaluated. Weed control was effective and similar for all herbicides tested. Napropamide at 8 lb a.i./acre caused stunting in foxglove (20% to 45% less growth compared to weed-free control). Oxyfluorfen + oryzlain at 12 lb a.i./acre caused severe phytotoxicity (≈80% to 95% of plant injured) and stunted the growth (70% to 80% less growth, sometimes plant death) of woolly yarrow. Woolly thyme was stunted by all herbicides when applied at the recommended rates (42% to 97% less growth compared to control) except for oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen + oryzlain. Woolly thyme appeared to be more susceptible to phytotoxicity due to its less-vigorous growth habit and shallow, adventitious roots that were in contact with the herbicide.
James E. Klett, Laurel Potts and David Staats
During the 1998 season, preemergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oryzalin (Surflan 40AS), 0.36 and 0.72 kg a.i./ha; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 0.54 and 2.16 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scott's OH II), 0.54 and 1.09 kg a.i./ha; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha. Herbicides were applied to Phalaris arundinacea `Picta', Scabiosa caucasica, Sedum × `Autumn Joy', Pennisetum setaceum `Rubrum', Salvia argentea, Penstemon × mexicali `Red Rocks', Osteospermum barberiae v. compactum `Purple Mountain', and Gazania linearis `Colorado Gold'. Phytotoxicity symptoms (visual defects) were apparent with Napropamide on Phalaris (at both rates) but recovered by the end of season. All herbicides provided good weed control.
James E. Klett, David Staats and Matt Rogoyski
During the 2004 season, preemergence herbicide was applied to 12 container-grown herbaceous perennials and woody plants and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicide and rates were: pendimethalin (Pendulum 2G) 908 g (label rate), 1816 g, and 3632 g/acre a.i. Herbicides were applied to lady's mantle (Alchemilla mollis), purple rock cress (Aubretia species), blue wild indigo (Baptisia australis), pink pussytoes (Antennaria dioica var. rosea), common sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), redhot poker (Kniphofia uvaria), showy goldenrod (Solidago speciosa), heartleaf foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia), lavender (Lavendula angustifolia), blue flax (Linum perenne), catmint (Nepeta ×faassenii), and hen and chicks (Sempervivum tectorum). At 32 and 117 days after application, plants were evaluated for phytotoxicity. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on any of the plants tested. Weed control was good in most cases with this herbicide but it did not control all weeds. Increasing the rates from 1× (label rate) did not significantly improve weed control.
Scott Dunn, David Staats and James E. Klett
During the 1996 season, pre-emergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oryzalin (Surflan 40AS), 0.36 and 0.72 kg a.i./ha; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 0.54 and 2.16 kg/ha; Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scott's OH II),0.54 kg a.i./ha; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha. Herbicides were applied to Campanula carpatica, Dianthus gratianopolitanus, Gaillardia × `Baby Cole', Penstemon × `Husker's Red', and Phlox subulata `Emerald Blue'. Phytotoxicity symptoms (visual defects and less height) were apparent with Oryzalin on Penstemon (at both rates) and on Phlox (0.72 kg a.i./ha). Weed control was significantly less with Trifluralin and Napropamide when compared to the other herbicides.
David Staats, James Klett, Teri Howlett and Matt Rogoyski
During the 2005 season, three preemergence herbicides were applied to four container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and application rates were: 1) Pendimethalin (Pendulum 2G) 2.24, 4.48, and 8.96 kg/ha; 2) Trifluralin and Isoxaben (Snapshot 2.5 TG) 2.8, 5.6, and 11.2 kg/ha; and 3) S-metolachlor (Pennant Magnum 7.6 EC) 2.8, 5.6, and 11.2 kg/ha. Herbicides were applied to Coral Bells (Heuchera sanguinea), Hopflower Oregano (Origanum libanoticum), CORONADO™ Hyssop (Agastache aurantiaca), and SPANISH PEAKS™ Foxglove (Digitalis thapsi). Treatments were applied twice with 30 days between applications. Plants were evaluated for phytotoxicity after 1, 2, and 4 weeks after applying herbicide treatments. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on any of the plants treated with Pendulum, and plant size (dry mass) was not affected. Snapshot resulted in visual phytotoxicity with Digitalis and Heuchera at the higher rates and also resulted in smaller plants. Pennant Magnum caused phytotoxicity at all rates in all plants and resulted in significantly smaller plants than the control. Weed control was very good with all herbicides, but did not control every weed.