Protein is an important and essential dietary component. Common bean, a major source of vegetable protein in the Americas, was chosen for study in controlled environments with a view to its potential for use in space colonies. Eighteen 0.58-m2 stands of the cranberry type of bean, `Etna', were grown in the greenhouse at plant densities of 7, 15, and 28 plants/m2 in a recirculating ebb-and-flow system. Duration of photoperiod and thermoperiod was 16 h. Day/night temperatures settings were 25/20 °C. Daily light integral was matched across greenhouse sections by means of supplemental lighting; it averaged 17 mol/m2 per day. Crop cycle was 70 days from seed to harvest. At harvest, plants were dismembered so that dry weights of leaf, branch, stem, pod, and bean yields could be separately measured by node of origin. Internode lengths were recorded, and all loose trash recovered. The relationship between yield and plant density followed the form expected. Yield of edible biomass at 7 plants/m2 (284 g/m2) was 88% of that at 28 plants/m2 (324 g/m2), a significant difference. At 15 plants/m2 it was 97%. The trend suggests that further gains (but only very small) in yield can be expected with increased density in this cultivar. Productivity and quantum yield at 28 plants/m2 were 4.69 g/m2 per day and 0.27 g/mol, respectively. The coefficient of variation for plants grown at 28 plants/m2 was three times that of plants grown at 7 plants/m2 (0.88 vs. 0.26). Yield component analysis, harvest index, and plant morphology at the different planting densities are discussed.
David S. de Villiers and Robert W. Langhans
H. Chris Wien and David S. de Villiers
Tipburn is a necrosis of the rapidly expanding young leaves of lettuce, caused by a localized Ca deficiency that is a major constraint to raising productivity of hydroponically-grown leaf lettuce. Root pressure is thought to be important in distributing calcium to young tissue that is not transpiring rapidly in crops such as cabbage, tomato and strawberry. Since root pressure is enhanced by high relative humidity (RH), experiments were conducted with two cultivars of leaf lettuce to determine if regulating relative humidity during the day or night would influence tipburn incidence. Lettuce was grown hydroponically in a glass-covered greenhouse. Plants were transferred to ponds of 1 × 2 m size, starting at about day 25 from sowing. Four ponds containing 42 plants each were subjected to ambient or elevated RH, either during the day, or at night, or at both times. Each pond was covered by a clear polyethylene ventilated canopy, to ensure maintenance of the desired RH condition. The experiment was conducted five times. In three experiments, tipburn developed in 3 or 7 days, depending on the cultivar. The disorder was most severe in ponds whose atmosphere was constantly humid, followed by the treatment that provided humid days and dry nights. Treatments which provided dry conditions, either during the day, or continuously, were least affected. In two experiments, ambient RH rose above 70%, and the differential effect of humidity on tipburn incidence was no longer evident. Both cultivars reacted similarly to the treatments, even though `Winter Density' developed the disorder 4 days before `Batavian'. The results imply that root pressure is less important than transpiration in distributing Ca to the edges of young leaves of leaf lettuce.
David S. de Villiers, Robert W. Langhans, A.J. Both, Louis D. Albright, and Sue Sue Scholl
CO2 enrichment increases efficiency of light utilization and rate of growth, thereby reducing the need for supplemental lighting and potentially lowering cost of production. However, during warmer periods of the year, CO2 enrichment is only possible intermittently due to the need to vent for temperature control. Previous research investigated the separate and combined effects of daily light integral and continuous CO2 enrichment on biomass accumulation in lettuce. The current research was designed to look at the efficiency with which lettuce is able to utilize intermittent CO2 enrichment, test the accuracy with which growth can be predicted and controlled, and examine effects of varying CO2 enrichment and supplemental lighting on carbon assimilation and plant transpiration on a minute by minute basis. Experiments included application of various schedules of intermittent CO2 enrichment and gas exchange analysis to elucidate underlying physiological processes. Same-day and day-to-day adjustments in daily light integrals were made in response to occasional CO2 venting episodes, using an up-to-the-minute estimate of growth progress based on an integration of growth increments that were calculated from actual light levels and CO2 concentrations experienced by the plants. Results indicated lettuce integrates periods of intermittent CO2 enrichment well, achieving expected growth targets as measured by destructive sampling. The gas-exchange work quantified a pervasive impact of instantaneous light level and CO2 concentration on conductance and CO2 assimilation. Implications for when to apply supplemental lighting and CO2 enrichment to best advantage and methods for predicting and controlling growth under intermittent CO2 enrichment are discussed.