The apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars Starkspur Supreme Delicious and Melrose were planted in 1987 on eight apomictic apple rootstock selections made in Germany by Dr. Hanna Schmidt and on M.7. Selections 2 [M. hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. parentage] and 8 [M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehd. parentage] were similar to M.7 in precocity, cumulative yield per tree, and yield efficiency, while the other selections with M. sargenti Rehd. in their parentage were slower to flower and had lower yields and yield efficiencies. Selections 2 and 8 tended to result in larger trees than M.7, while the selections with M. sargenti parentage were generally similar to M.7 in size. Except for trees on M.7 and selection 2, `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' developed more severe symptoms of internal bark necrosis (IBN) than did `Melrose', which normally does not show IBN. However, `Melrose' showed IBN symptoms on selections with M. sargenti parentage. IBN symptoms were positively correlated with leaf Mn concentrations. Influence of rootstocks on other nutrient elements, although significant, were small compared to the effect on Mn. A significant interaction occurred between cultivar and rootstock in their effects upon branch morphology, mostly because fewer flowering spurs and more vegetative spurs were observed on `Melrose' than on `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' when grafted on Selection 2. These apomictic selections offered no advantage over M.7 as rootstocks for apples.
David C. Ferree
David C. Ferree
In 1981, four apple cultivars were established as a low trellis hedgerow on M.9 or free-standing central leaders on M.7 at the recommended or half the recommended spacing with the close planted trees either root pruned annually at bloom or hedged in August. Planting at half the spacing and annual summer hedging 2 sides decreased TCA 25% and canopy volume 51% with no effect on shoot growth, while annual root pruning decreased TCA 34%, canopy volume 50% and shoot length 25%. Planting at half spacing and either hedging or root pruning reduced yields per tree. Efficiency as measured by yield TCA was decreased by hedging and as measured by yield/m3 canopy volume was increased by both treatments with hedging having the greatest effect. The cumulative yield/ha was increased by both hedging and root pruning with no difference between them. Fruit size was decreased by close planting and root pruning caused a greater decrease than hedging. Close planting increased the number of spurs and shoots and LAI per unit volume of canopy with no difference between hedging or root pruning. `Empire' outproduced `Smoothee' and `Delicious' on the trellis and `Lawspur' had higher yields than any other cultivar in the central leader.
David C. Ferree
Container-grown apple trees on a range of rootstocks were exposed to different levels of soil compaction created by changing soil bulk density. In 1998, with soil bulk densities of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4, there was no interaction of rootstock and soil compaction for shoot growth of `Melrose' trees on 7 rootstocks. However, in 1999, with soil bulk densities of 1.0 and 1.5, a significant interaction on shoot growth did occur with six rootstocks. Shoot length of trees on M.9, M.7, and G.30 were less influenced than G.16, M.26 and MM.106. A bulk density of 1. 5 caused a decrease in dry weight of shoots, leaves, and roots of trees on all rootstocks. Compacted soil resulted in a decrease in leaf concentration of K and B and an increase in Mg and Mn.
David C. Ferree
In 1987, `Smoothee Golden Delicious' (`Smoothee') and `Lawspur Rome Beauty' (`Lawspur') apple (Malus domestica Borkh,) trees were planted and trained as central leaders or palmette leaders on M.7 and Mark rootstocks or were planted as slender spindles on Mark rootstocks. `Smoothee' trees were larger and had consistently greater yields and production per unit trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) than `Lawspur' trees. Slender spindle trees had lower early yields per tree and TCA but had greater cumulative yields per hectare than trees in the other training systems. In the fifth and sixth growing seasons, `Smoothee' trained as palmette leaders tended to have higher yields per hectare then central leader trees. Training system had little influence on `Lawspur' tree yields. Limb bending in 1989 increased flower density in 1989 and 1990. Cumulative yield per hectare increased 11% as a result of limb bending of trees on Mark rootstock, but bending had no influence on trees on M.7 rootstock. `Smoothee' on Mark had higher cumulative yields per hectare with the palmette leader and central leader than either `Smoothee' on M.7 in either training system or any combination with `Lawspur'.
David C. Ferree
In 1987, `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' and `Melrose' were planted on eight apomitic apple selections made in Germany by Dr. Hanna Schmidt for use as rootstocks and compared to trees on M.7. Selection 2, was the most precocious, followed by trees on M.7, with selections 1 and 7 being less precocious than M.7. Selections 2 and 8 were 25% larger than M.7, while 1, 3, 4, and 7 were similar in size and 5 was 15% smaller than trees on M.7. Selections 2 and 8 had the highest cumulative yields/tree, followed by trees on M.7, with all other selections having lower yields. Internal bark necrosis (IBN) developed on the `Delicious' trees, with the most-severe symptoms on selections 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, with less-severe symptoms on 8 and very little present on trees on M.7. IBN was correlated with leaf Mn levels. In 1995, the highest density of flowering spurs occurred on M.7 and selections 3 and 7, with lower densities in selections 2 and 5. Selection 2 had the highest density of non-fl owering spurs, followed by selection 5, with all others having lower densities similar to trees on M.7.
David C. Ferree
`Jonathan'/M.26 apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees were root-pruned annually on two sides, 60 cm from the trunk, to a depth of 40 cm for 6 years while dormant, at bloom, or in mid-June. Root pruning reduced terminal shoot growth by ≈30% in 1985-89 with no influence in 1990. Cumulative yield was reduced by root pruning at bloom (14%) or mid-June (20%), and cumulative yield efficiency [kg·cm-2 trunk cross-sectional area) was reduced by root pruning with no difference among pruning times except in 1 year, where abundant moisture throughout the season appeared to negate the effect. The intensity of biennial bearing was reduced by root pruning with no relationships to time of pruning. Root pruning resulted in a decrease in large fruit and an increase in small fruit in 3 of the 6 years. A covariant analysis with yield showed that root pruning reduced average fruit size. Root-pruned trees produced firmer fruit with an increased soluble solids concentration and had less preharvest drop than nonpruned trees. Under severe drought conditions in 1988, root pruning reduced net photosynthesis and transpiration; supplemental water (57 liters·week-1) increased transpiration and fruit size at harvest.
David C. Ferree
`Melrose'/M.26 apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees were mechanically root-pruned annually for 9 years at bloom to a 25-cm depth at 80 cm from the trunk on two sides. An evaluation of the number of roots of four size categories on the exposed wall of a 1.2 x 2-m trench located 1 m from the trunk indicated that root pruning caused a reduction in all root size categories. Roots < 1 mm in diameter were reduced 20% by root pruning, while the reduction in larger roots was nearly double this amount. The effect of root pruning on root distribution was greatest in the top 30 cm of soil, parallel to the location of the root-pruning cut. Roots below 30 cm were unaffected. The number of roots in all size categories in samples taken parallel and perpendicular to the row decreased linearly with soil depth.
David C. Ferree and W. Timothy Rhodus
In 1981, four apple cultivars were established as a low trellis hedgerow on 11.9 or free-standing central leaders on 11.7 at the recommended or half the recommended spacing with the close planted trees either root pruned or hedged. The trellis had a higher trunk area (TCA)/ha (31%), yield/ha (41%) and tree efficiency (19%). `Lawspur Rome Beauty' had the highest TCA/ha, cumulative yield/ha and greatest tendency toward biennial bearing of the 4 cvs. `Smoothee Golden Delicious' trees in the central leader system were less efficient (kg/cm2) than in the trellis system. Hedging increased cumulative yield/ha compared to standard spaced trees with root pruned trees intermediate. Training trees to the trellis increased the density of both spurs and shoots and resulted in a higher leaf area index. Central leader trees of `Smoothee' and `Red Chief' had higher light transmission levels than the trellis, while the trellis trees had higher light levels with `Lawspur'. Return over total cost was negative for years 1-10 for all systems. Cumulative NPV for `Redchief' hedged on central leader equaled `Lawspur' at the standard spacing on trellis and exceeded all other combinations.
Ann K. Hummell and David C. Ferree
`Seyval blanc' grapevines (Vitis spp.) were cluster thinned 7 days after full bloom to 20, 40, and 80 clusters per vine to create light, moderate, and heavy crop levels. Vines were also shoot positioned at veraison to create exposed, partially shaded, and densely shaded cluster microclimates to examine the interactions between crop level and light exposure on fruit composition during stage III of berry development. Clusters were harvested using one of two criteria: on the same date or at similar soluble solids concentrations. Cluster mass and berries per cluster decreased with increasing crop level regardless of harvesting criterion. When harvested on the same date, soluble solids concentration, pH and malic acid concentration of juice decreased with increasing crop level. When harvested at similar soluble solids concentrations, increasing crop level delayed harvest and reduced titratable acidity (TA), tartaric acid, and malic acid. As cluster light exposure increased, soluble solids and pH increased and TA and malic acid decreased when clusters were harvested on the same date. When harvested at similar soluble solids concentration, increasing light exposure advanced harvest date and pH, TA, tartaric acid, and malic acid decreased. If clusters were harvested on the same date, significant interactions were found between crop level and light exposure for soluble solids concentration and the hue angle of berries. Significant interactions were found for berry mass, pH, TA, and tartaric acid when clusters were harvested at similar soluble solids. When harvested on the same date in 1995, soluble solids concentration of densely shaded clusters declined as crop level increased, whereas the soluble solids of exposed and partially shaded clusters declined as cluster number increased from 20 to 40 clusters per vine but remained constant from 40 to 80 clusters. In 1995, the hue angles of exposed clusters decreased with increasing crop level, while those of partially shaded and densely shaded clusters increased. When harvested at similar soluble solids concentration, berry mass of exposed and partially shaded clusters was similar across crop levels, whereas berry mass of densely shaded clusters declined as crop levels increased. Based on contribution to treatment error, crop level influenced pH more, and TA less, than did light exposure if harvested at the same date. Conversely, crop level influenced TA more, and pH less, than did light exposure if harvest was done at similar soluble solids concentrations. Regardless of harvest criterion, crop level influenced yield components, and soluble solids concentration to a greater extent and hue angle to a lesser extent than did light exposure.
Steven J. McArtney and David C. Ferree
Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were covered with an 80% neutral shade cloth from flowering until harvest to investigate effects of shade on early season vegetative development in the year after treatment. Shading reduced root dry weight, the concentration of soluble sugars, and amino nitrogen in xylem sap at budbreak, and leaf area expansion in the following year. Dry weight of roots on both shaded and nonshaded vines declined by more than 50% in the first 3 weeks after budbreak and then began to increase, but still had not recovered to prebudbreak levels, 10 weeks after budbreak. Total leaf area per shoot was reduced in the year after shading due to both fewer and smaller leaves.