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  • Author or Editor: David B. Marx x
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Abstract

A single application of 20 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) 2 weeks before harvest increased yields and height of fall spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by inducing the setting of leaves in an upright position and stimulating petiole and stem growth. Small differences were noted between GA3-treated and untreated overwintered spinach. Cultivars responded similarly to growth conditions and to GA3 application. Both GA3-treated and untreated fall spinach had better quality than overwintered spinach harvested in the spring. Spinach treated with GA3 had higher shearpress values, yellow and green color, lower titratable acidity, and no change in pH values as compared to the control. A panel graded GA3-treated spinach slightly higher in amount of petioles and stems and lower in general acceptability than the untreated control. Better utilization of GA3 was obtained in the fall-grown spinach.

Open Access

Abstract

A comparison was made of ‘Ozarka’ and ‘Green Valley’ spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) planted in early fall, and harvested in the fall and spring; and planted in late fall and harvested once in the spring. Fall-harvested spinach had no stems, low percentage petioles, and high percentage leaf blades with better green color and lower shear values, pH and titratable acidity as well as higher sensory evaluations than spring-harvested. Spring-harvested spinach from the late fall planting had a higher percentage of undersirable stems and petioles than spring-harvested spinach from the early fall planting.

Open Access

Abstract

The processing quality of kidney, pinto, and small white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv Redkloud, UI-111, and Aurora) was compared when harvested at the dry (11–14% moisture content) and semi-dry (50–60% moisture content) stage in the spring and fall growing seasons. Semi-dry harvested beans were canned immediately after harvest and after being storaged at 27°C for 24 hours. Dry harvested beans were canned after harvest. The respiratory rate of semi-dry harvested beans stored at 27° decreased with time in storage. Significant differences in objective and subjective evaluations were found between cultivars, harvest stage, storage treatments, and spring and fall growing seasons. Semi-dry harvested beans stored for 24 hours at 27° had fewer split beans than the non-stored counterpart and the dry harvested beans. Semi-dry beans with and without storage treatment were firmer than those harvested dry. An increase in color was observed in semi-dry beans of ‘UI-111’ and ‘Redkloud’ after being stored for 24 hours at 27°. Sensory panel evaluations indicated that beans harvested at the semi-dry stage and stored for 24 hours at 27° before canning had similar or higher acceptability than beans harvested dry.

Open Access

Abstract

The 3 harvesters tested provided about the same harvest efficiency. Harvesters did not show significant differences in sound, broken, and bruised pods harvested from 2 fields. More pod clusters and less trash were obtained in the field with more mature pods. Under the same field conditions, 2.6 times more snap beans could be harvested with the FMC model GB-110 and Chisholm-Ryder Multi-Density than with the Chisholm-Ryder Hi-Boy. Quality differences of canned beans harvested with the machines were too small to differentiate by the USDA standards for grades of canned snap beans.

Open Access

Nutrient and chemical changes in turfgrass sand-based root zones are not well understood. This study was conducted to characterize nutrient and chemical properties in putting greens influenced by root zone mixture and establishment treatment, putting green age, and soil depth. Putting greens were constructed and established with Agrostis stolonifera L. in sequential years from 1997 to 2000. Treatments included root zone mixtures of 80:20 (v:v) sand and sphagnum peat and 80:15:5 (v:v:v) sand, sphagnum peat, and soil, and accelerated versus controlled establishment. In the establishment year, the accelerated treatment received 2.6-, 3.0-, and 2.6-fold more nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively, than the controlled treatment. Soil samples were taken in Fall 2001, Spring 2004, and Summer 2004 and were analyzed for nutrient and chemical properties such as pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter (OM), total soluble salts (TSS), and 12 nutrients. The root zone mixture and establishment treatments had minimal effects on most nutrient and chemical properties with the exception of phosphorus and pH. Cation exchange capacity, OM, TSS, and all nutrients decreased with soil depth, whereas soil pH increased. The putting green age × soil depth interaction was significant for many of the nutrient and chemical properties, but separating soil samples into mat and original root zone instead of predetermined soil sampling depths eliminated most of these interactions. The mat layer had higher CEC and OM values and nutrient concentrations and lower pH values than the original root zone mixture.

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