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Theeranuch Chantrachit and Daryl G. Richardson

Ripening bananas (color stage 5) were placed in closed jars held at 20°C. Nitrogen (99.99%, 100 ml/min) or air were flowed through the jars. SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) was used for sampling dynamic headspace and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Several volatile compounds decreased with time in the nitrogen treatment. Production of isobutyl butyrate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, methyl heptanoate, pentyl acetate, and 2-pentanol which were present in air treatments, were absent in the nitrogen treatment. Ethanol rapidly increased until the last day. Off-flavors were detected by most panelists after three days of N2 treatment and off-flavors increased in the following days. Reversibility of off-flavor after exposing the bananas to air was not detected by panelists. Correlations were low between the main compounds in the nitrogen treatment and the off-flavor score.

Open access

Sylvia M. Blankenship and Daryl G. Richardson

Abstract

‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) stored at −1°C for 125 days in 3% O2, or 153 days in 1% O2 storage had internal ethylene levels equal to those of air-stored fruit. Fruit softened faster during subsequent ripening at 20° after 1% or 3% O2 storage than after air storage. Endogenous ACC levels were 20 times higher in fruit stored in 1% or 3% O2 compared to air-stored fruit. Exogenous application of 5 mm ACC stimulated at 2-fold increase in ethylene production from 1% O2-stored fruit and a 4-fold increase in air-stored fruit. When 5 mm ACC, in combination with 0.05 mm cycloheximide (CHI), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, were supplied exogenously to disks cut from pears stored in air or 1% O2, the air-stored fruit produced 100 times more ethylene than 1% O2-stored fruit. Increased internal ethylene levels and accelerated softening during ripening of 1% or 3% O2-stored fruit suggests the need for rapid marketing of this fruit as compared to air-stored fruit. Chemical names used: 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC), 3-[2(3,5-dimethyl-2-oxocyclohexyl)-2-hydroxyethyl glutarimide (cycloheximide).

Open access

Sylvia M. Blankenship and Daryl G. Richardson

Abstract

Forty-six days at –1°C were required to stimulate ethylene synthesis in harvested ‘d'Anjou’ pears (Pyrus communis L.). The effect of exogenous ethylene on changes in quality parameters and organoleptic properties, and the effect of cold temperature on the development of ethylene production, were studied during the 46 days at –1°. Pears were held in 10 or 50 ppm exogenous ethylene at 20° after 30 or less days at –1°. Respiration increased from 8 to about 19 mg CO2·kg-1·hr-1 in fruit held in ethylene over a 12-day period, whereas fruit held in air showed only a slight increase. Firmness of fruit held in ethylene decreased from 66 to 12 N over 12 days at 20°. No significant change in firmness occurred in fruit held in air at 20°. The volume of extractable juice was unchanged in fruit held in air, but declined in fruit held in ethylene. The soluble solids content was not affected by ethylene treatment. Taste panel evaluation determined that fruit held 30 days at –1° then held 10 days in ethylene at 20° were ripe, sweet, and juicy, but fruit held in air were comparable to fruit never held at 20°. Pear flesh disks cut from fruit held 21 days at –1° did not convert exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene, but did so when cut from fruit held 41 or 50 days at –1°. Only with the onset of ethylene production was endogenous ACC detectable in pear flesh. During the 46 days at –1° required for initiation of ethylene production, the capacity to convert ACC to ethylene developed first, followed by production of ACC and ethylene.

Open access

Sylvia M. Blankenship and Daryl G. Richardson

Abstract

High performance liquid chromatography of mature ‘Beurre d'Anjou’ and ‘Beurre Bosc’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit flesh showed that the major phenolics at harvest were chlorogenic acid, catechin, and arbutin. Neither cultivar contained epicatechin nor p-coumaroyl quinate. During 160 days at –1°C the chlorogenic acid content of d'Anjou increased significantly. In ‘Bosc’, chlorogenic acid levels decreased during storage. Catechin content increased linearly while arbutin levels remained nearly constant in both cultivars. Coincident with the completion of the cold requirement for initiation of ripening and endogenous ethylene production, i.e., 20 days for ‘Bosc’ and 50 days for ‘d'Anjou’, there was an appearance of low levels of a p-coumaric acid derivative and trace amounts of epicatechin/p-coumaroyl quinate. At 120 days epicatechin/p-coumaroyl quinate increased in ‘d'Anjou’ but not in ‘Bosc’. There is a coincidence, and perhaps relationship, between ethylene production and the quantity as well as the composition of phenolics present during storage. Bruising pear fruit after 120 days of storage caused a 30% increase in chlorogenic acid and a 50% increase in catechin, but no increase in p-coumaric acid derivatives.

Free access

Kais S. Ebrahem, Daryl G. Richardson, and Richard M. Tetley

Kernels in the shell were compared to bare kernels with pellicles, half nuts, blanched nuts, finely chopped nuts, and roasted nuts. Whole nuts and whole kernels were stable for up to two years of storage provided they had not been exposed to high temperatures. Nuts stored at low temperatures (0 and 5°C) did not lose significant amounts of vitamin E. Increasing surface area by dividing nuts or finely chopping them, increased the loss of vitamin E. Samples that had lower surface areas did not lose much vitamin E and peroxide value was low. Higher roasting temperatures caused losses in vitamin E and increased peroxide values at the beginning and during storage, even when stored at 0°C. Intact nuts and low storage temperatures did not show changes in fatty acid composition. High temperature treatments changed fatty acid composition, mainly decreasing linoleic initially and finally oleic acids.

Open access

Sylvia E. Meadows and Daryl G. Richardson

Abstract

Dormant ‘Viva’ rose bushes kept at 0° or 5°C were subjected to 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm ethylene for 4 weeks, then planted in containers and forced in the greenhouse. At planting, ethylene damage was not apparent, except to the plants exposed to the combination of 5° and 1000 ppm ethylene. However, after 5 weeks of growth, there was progressively more cane mortality and less budbreak as ethylene concentrations were increased, with more damage for the 5° than the 0° treatments.

Open access

Esmaeil Fallahi, Daryl G. Richardson, and Melvin N. Westwood

Abstract

Internal ethylene of attached fruit of ‘Starkspur Golden Delicious’ apple as influenced by 6 rootstocks: Seedling, Mailing (M1) 1, Mailing Merton 106 (MM 106), M 7, OAR 1, M 26, at 2 levels each of soil-applied K and N were measured during maturation for 2 years (1980 and 1981). Ethylene evolution of detached fruit as a result of these treatments also was measured after 2.5 months of storage at 0°C in 1981. Internal ethylene in the attached fruit was less than 0.1 μl·liter-1 in late September and early October and began to rise between 9 Oct. and 15 Oct. Internal ethylene increased in all treatments, almost at the same time in 1980. In 1981, ethylene in the fruit on OAR 1 began to increase 9 days later than in the other rootstocks. However, levels of ethylene in the fruit were relatively low on OAR 1 and high on M 26 as compared to those on other rootstocks in late October 1980 and 1981 and during poststorage 1981 samplings. Ethylene levels in fruit from other rootstocks were similar. Because of these variable effects of rootstocks, and the effects of a low field temperature in reducing internal ethylene levels, field sampling of internal ethylene levels was an unreliable indicator of the proper harvest time, as measured by other maturity indices. No consistent influence of K or N applications was found in the internal ethylene of the attached fruit; however, high N applications increased ethylene evolution after storage.