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  • Author or Editor: Darren L. Haver x
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The objectives of this study were to determine 1) the minimum controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) rate and the lowest constant medium moisture required to produce the highest quality plants and 2) if this production system affected quality of these plants under two postproduction light levels. Two New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens sp. hybrids) `Illusion' and `Blazon' (Lasting Impressions Series) differing in salt tolerance were grown for 42 days with a CRF at three rates (3.3, 6.6, or 9.9 g/pot) and two medium moisture levels (low or high) without leaching. The high moisture level (tension setpoints of 1 to 3 kPa) and 6.6 g of CRF/pot produced optimum biomass. Low medium moisture (tension setpoints of 4 to 6 kPa) reduced leaf area, leaf number, leaf N content, root, stem, and leaf dry masses as CRF rate increased from low to high for `Illusion'. Similar results in `Blazon' were observed as CRF rates increased from 3.3 to 6.6 g. Biomass decreased no further at the high rate of 9.9 g/pot. Biomass increased in both cultivars under high medium moisture when CRF rates increased from 3.3 to 6.6 g. Biomass of `Illusion' decreased at 9.9 g/pot, although no symptoms of salt sensitivity were observed (i.e., leaf tip burn). `Blazon' maintained a similar biomass when amended with 9.9 or 6.6 g CRF/pot, although electrical conductivity (EC) in the medium was 5.9 dS·m-1 in the upper half and 4.1 dS·m-1 in the lower half of the medium at the end of production. Growth of `Illusion' responded more favorably to postproduction light levels that were similar to those of production regardless of treatment imposed during production. Similar biomass responses occurred for `Blazon' regardless of the postproduction light level.

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Salt-sensitive (`Illusion') and salt-tolerant (`Blazon') New Guinea impatiens cultivars were grown for 70 days with a controlled-release fertilizer at 3.3, 6.6, or 9.9 g/pot under constant media moisture of 1–3 kPa or 4–6 kPa. Optimum growth for both cultivars occurred using 6.6 g/pot and a media moisture level of 1–3 kPa. The leaf area (LA), leaf number (LN), leaf dry weight (LDW), stem dry weight (SDW), and root dry weight (RDW) were significantly reduced at 9.9 g/pot in `Illusion', with values similar to those at 3.3 g/pot. LDW, SDW, RDW, LA, and LN were similar for 6.6 g/pot and 9.9 g/pot in `Blazon'. At 4–6 kPa LDW, SDW, RDW, LA, and LN decreased from low to high in `Illusion'. LA in `Blazon' also decreased from low to high, but LDW, SDW, RDW, and LN were unaffected. Media EC levels were greater in the upper half of the media regardless of moisture level. EC values as high as 7.3 dS·m–1 in the upper half of the media and as high as 5.2 dS·m–1 in the lower half of the media were measured without causing plant mortality.

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Increased urban and suburban populations in the arid western United States have resulted in more water demand; however, water availability in the region has become limited because of inadequate precipitation. Recent droughts have led to restrictions on irrigating landscape plants. Garden rose (Rosa ×hybrida) is commonly used as flowering plants in residential landscapes, but its drought tolerance has not been widely studied. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of reduced irrigation frequency on visual quality, plant growth, and physiology of five garden rose cultivars, including ChewPatout (Oso Easy® Urban Legend®), Meibenbino (Petite Knock Out®), MEIRIFTDAY (Oso Easy® Double Pink), Overedclimb (Cherry Frost™), and Radbeauty (Sitting Pretty™). Twenty-four plants of each rose cultivar were established in a trial plot at Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Greenville Research Farm (North Logan, UT, USA) in Summer 2021. Plants were randomly assigned to one of three deficit irrigation treatments for which irrigation frequencies were calculated using 80% reference evapotranspiration (ETO) (high), 50% ETO (medium), and 20% ETO (low). The total volumes of irrigation water applied to each plant were 345.6, 172.8, and 43.2 L for the high, medium, and low irrigation frequencies, respectively, during the deficit irrigation trial from 12 May to 30 Sep 2022. Root zones were wetted more frequently as irrigation frequency increased from low to high irrigation frequencies. Decreased irrigation frequency increased the number of visibly wilted and damaged leaves on all rose cultivars. However, only ‘Meibenbino’ and ‘MEIRIFTDAY’ exhibited a reduction in overall appearance under decreased irrigation frequency. The relative growth indices of both ‘Meibenbino’ and ‘MEIRIFTDAY’ decreased by 6%, whereas the dry weights of their leaves decreased by 37% and 36%, respectively, as irrigation decreased from high to low frequencies. Roses in this study appeared to decrease stomatal conductance up to 51% when irrigation decreased from high to low frequencies, or when air temperature increased. ‘Meibenbino’ and ‘MEIRIFTDAY’ exhibited unacceptable overall appearance, growth reduction, and higher leaf–air temperature differences, and they were less tolerant to reduced irrigation. Although the ‘Radbeauty’ maintained plant growth under the reduced irrigation frequency, the large leaf size led to a more visibly wilted appearance and the potential for heat stress, thus impairing visual quality. ‘ChewPatout’ and ‘Overedclimb’ were most tolerant to deficit irrigation at 20% ETO and maintained plant growth with acceptable visual quality and lower leaf temperatures when they received one irrigation during the growing season.

Open Access