Five morphological and developmental traits (branching habit, vegetative budbreak, reproductive budbreak, bloom time, and root suckering) were analyzed in a family obtained from the apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cross `Rome Beauty' × `White Angel'. The phenotypic variation in these traits was compared with a selected set of marker loci covering the known genome of each of the parents to locate genes with major effects on the traits. The contrasting branching habits of the two parents appeared to be controlled by at least two loci. One of these, Tb, governed the presence or absence of lateral branches, particularly on the lower half of shoots. The locus was heterozygous in `White Angel' and was mapped to a 5 CM interval on linkage group 6. At least one other locus conditioning spur-type branching appeared to be segregating, but the locus or loci could not be linked to segregating markers. The timing of initial vegetative growth was tightly associated with the chromosomal region in which the Tb gene is located and maybe a pleiotropic effect of this gene. Time of reproductive budbreak correlated with segregation at the isozyme marker, Prx-c, on linkage group 5. Variation in time of bloom and later stages in flower development appeared to be controlled by different genes not linked to Prx-c. The tendency to produce root suckers cosegregated with a marker on `White Angel' linkage group 1, suggesting control by a single locus, Rs. Data from a `Rome Beauty' x `Robusta 5' family provided additional information on the inheritance of these traits.
Darlene M. Lawson, Minou Hemmat, and Norman F. Weeden
Susan L. Eggleston, Darlene M. Lawson, and Martha A. Mutschler
Acylsugars produced by many accessions of wild tomato (L. pennellii) mediate resistance to a number of important pests of tomato. The highly resistant L. pennellii accession LA716 accumulates high levels of acylsugars, of which 85% are in the form of acylglucoses, the rest being acylsucroses. In contrast, L. pennellii accession LA1912, which does not show the insect resistance of accession LA716, accumulates very low levels of acylsugars, of which 55% are represented by acylglucoses. The intraspecific F1 derived from crosses between the accessions LA716 and LA1912 accumulates moderate levels of acylsugars, of which, like its LA716 parent, 85% are in the form of acylglucoses. Intraspecific F2 and backcross populations derived from crosses between the accessions LA716 and LA1912 were surveyed for acylsucrose and acylglucose production. These populations segregated for the ability to produce acylsugars, levels of total acylsugars produced and amount of acylglucoses as a percentage of total acylsugars. The genetic control of these traits will be discussed.
Barbara E. Liedl, Darlene M. Lawson, Kris K. White, Joseph A. Shapiro, William G. Carson, John T. Trumble, and Martha A. Mutschler
Acylsugars, the primary components of the exudate secreted by type IV trichomes of Lycopersicon pennellii (Corr.) D'Arcy LA716, mediate the resistance of this accession to silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, n. sp. Reduction in the settling of the adult silverleaf whiteflies correlates with the concomitant increase in applied acylsugars. Oviposition of B. argentifolii is also affected by acylsugars, resulting in a reduction in the number of eggs and nymphs found; however, acylsugars do not affect hatching of nymphs. The threshold amount of acylsugars required for deterring settling and oviposition is under the amount of acylsugars (50 to 70 μg·cm–1) required for control of other insects.