Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is traditionally transplanted either to the top of the root ball or to the cotyledons of the transplant. Recent evidence has shown that increased and earlier yields may be obtained by deeper transplanting of pepper. Thus, a study was undertaken to investigate the effects of pepper transplanting depth on flowering and the fruit characteristics of harvest fruit. Pepper was transplanted to the top of the rootball, the cotyledons, and the first true leaf at two locations in 1994. Both `Camelot' Hybrid and `Jupiter' (open-pollinated) cultivars were planted into bareground on Mar. 24 at Tifton, Ga. Only `Camelot' was transplanted into a plastic mulch with drip irrigation on Mar. 28 at Cool Springs. Plots consisted of a single row of seven plants with the internal five plants used for data collection. Treatments were replicated three times. Normal cultural and pest control practices were used at both locations. Data on flowering were collected 5 weeks after transplanting. Data on fruit characteristics were collected at harvest. Number of bloom clusters per plant, number of blooms per cluster, number of open blooms, and number of set blooms were significantly greater in the deeper-planted pepper at Cool Springs. The same was true for bloom clusters and blooms per cluster at Tifton. Number of blooms open and set were greater in deeper-planted `Camelot' at Tifton as well. There were virtually no differences among characteristics of harvest fruit. Earlier bloom set appears to occur in deeper-planted pepper on both bareground and mulched beds.
William Terry Kelley and Darbie M. Granberry
Darbie M. Granberry and William Terry Kelly
During summer in southern Georgia, greenhouses often reach or exceed 49C. Subsequently, transplants grown in these houses tend to exceed optimum height. To determine effects of N and P fertility levels on pepper (Capsicum annuum) transplant growth, applications of nutrient solutions with 58, 12, and 0 ppm N and 114, 57, and 0 ppm P205
were applied to recently emerged Capistrano bell pepper beginning 12 Aug. 1994. Plants were grown in polystyrene flats using a commercial noncharged artificial soil mix. Nutrient solutions were applied as needed to maintain adequate moisture until 31 Aug., except for two treatments that received only water after 22 Aug. Data were taken on 22 and 31 Aug. With 58 ppm N, 0 P decreased plant height, leaf count, leaf area, and plant weight. Higher N increased plant height, ratings of intact root plugs and washed roots, stem diameter, leaf count, leaf area, and plant weight. At 12 ppm N, P had no significant effect on transplant growth. Withholding fertilizer the final week reduced plant height, ratings of intact root plugs, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, and plant weight.
William Terry Kelley and Darbie M. Granberry
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) has traditionally been transplanted to the top of the root ball or to the cotyledons of the transplant. Recent studies have shown increased and earlier yields are obtained by transplanting pepper deeper. Thus, a study was initiated to investigate effects of transplanting depth on pepper yield and plant growth. Pepper was transplanted to the top of the rootball, the cotyledons, and the first true leaf in two locations in 1994. `Camelot' hybrid and `Jupiter' (open pollinated) cultivars were planted into bare ground on Mar. 24 in Tifton, Ga. Only `Camelot' was transplanted into a plastic mulch with drip irrigation on Mar. 28 in Cool Springs. Plots consisted of single rows of seven plants with data collected from the internal five plants. Treatments were replicated three times. Normal cultural and pest control practices were used at both locations. Plant measurement data were taken 5 weeks after transplanting. Yield data were collected at harvest. Total weight per plant of three harvests was significantly greater with peppers planted to cotyledons and first true leaf than those planted to the rootball in `Jupiter'. There was no significant effect of planting depth on `Camelot', although there was a distinct trend toward greater yield with deeper planting on plastic. The same trend was evident for average weight per plant and average number of fancy-grade peppers per plant. Average stem diameter, plant height, and length of largest leaf were all greater among deeper planted peppers. Deeper planting seems to have a positive effect on yield and plant growth, particularly with hybrid pepper planted into a plastic mulch.
George E. Boyhan, Gerard Krewer, Darbie M. Granberry, C. Randell Hill and William A. Mills
Laurie Hodges, Douglas C. Sanders, Katharine B. Perry, Kent M. Eskridge, K.M. `Dean' Batal, Darbie M. Granberry, Wayne J. McLaurin, Dennis Decoteau, Robert J. Dufault, J. Thomas Garrett and Russell Nagata
Four bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars were evaluated for yield (total weight of marketable fruit) performance over 41 environments as combinations of 3 years, three planting dates, and seven locations across North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Cultural practices, including trickle irrigation and double rows planted on black-plastic-covered beds, were uniform across all environments, except for fertilization, which was adjusted at each location based on soil tests. Comparing production over 3 years between the mountain location and the Coastal Plain location in North Carolina, yields were lower on the Coastal Plain. Spring plantings provided higher yields than summer plantings at both locations. Yield increases were obtained from hybrid cultivars over that of the open-pollinated (OP) standard [`Keystone Resistant Giant #3' (KRG#3)] in the summer planting in the mountains compared to the Tidewater Coastal Plain. Across the three-state region, hybrid cultivar yields were higher than those of the OP cultivar for the second spring planting date in 1986 and 1987. Although the hybrid yields were higher than that of the OP standard, the hybrid `Skipper' yielded less than the other hybrids (`Gator Belle' and `Hybelle'). `Gator Belle' generally out-yielded `Hybelle' at all locations, except in Fletcher, N.C. This difference may be related to the relative sensitivity of these two cultivars to temperature extremes, rather than soil or geographic factors, because there was a tendency for `Hybelle' yields to exceed `Gator Belle' in the earliest planting date. Based on the reliability index, the chance of outperforming KRG#3 (the standard) was 85% for `Hybelle', 80% for `Gator Belle', but only 67% for `Skipper'.