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Daniel J. Cantliffe

Free access

Daniel J. Cantliffe

Free access

Daniel J. Cantliffe

Free access

Daniel J. Cantliffe

Transplants are grown and shipped locally or over long distances. Shipping conditions and time in transit depend on the distance travelled. Local growers may receive transplants in trays they were grown in while those shipped long distances are pulled and packed in boxes. Plant field performance is directly correlated with seedling vigor at the time of transplanting. Factors which can affect transplant vigor during growing and shipping include the plant hardening techniques employed, mechanical injury at any stage of plant growing, shipping and planting, length and conditions of transit, and storage prior to transplanting. Mechanical injury begins as soon as the plants are removed from the tray, while reduced watering and/or nutrition during hardening may have a long term effect on plant productivity. High temperature during shipping, packing plants too densely, and prolonged storage in the dark can reduce subsequent yields. Knowledge of proper conditions for transplant pre- and post-harvest handling and shipping are not clearly understood by many transplant producers and growers. Such knowledge can greatly improve transplant vigor and potentially give growers better yields.

Free access

Daniel J. Cantliffe

Extension gained strength from its inception in the early 1900s until the early 1980s. Then things changed—trends led to the notion that extension should get out of social programs and let producers pay their own way. These were the Reagan/Thatcher years. England, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada largely dismantled their extension services. This was supposedly due to financial reasons. They let the private sector take up whatever was released. In the U.S. during the 1980s the Extension Service came under similar attacks and some erosion of the services took place in various states. This has led to a reorganization of the extension service at the federal level, bringing the ARS and Extension Service closer together. I believe that this is the future for Extension—to bind and to build with research to improve and promote continued transfer of new technology. I see this as very difficult for the private sector to do. The ARS and university researchers have to be intimately involved with extension personnel. Program development must be two-fold and must begin to cross state lines both at the state and county levels. Extension workers are doing many of the research jobs of the 1960s and 1970s. For example, our Florida county agents are now doing demonstration and applied research studies that the experiment station personnel did up until 1980. For survival, county operations will need further combining and refining. The basis of the future lies in accountability of extension programs to the public and continued public relationships to express the good job that extension does for all Americans.

Full access

Daniel J. Cantliffe

Since the establishment of the land-grant systems in the late 1800s, universities and experiment station systems have sought out and tested vegetable germplasm for its suitability in regional and local areas across the United States. The private seed industry continued to grow, both in number and volume of sales through the early half of the twentieth century. It was during this time that many of the public breeding programs at land-grant universities began corollary plant breeding programs in variety development for vegetables. For many years it was a cooperative coexistence between the private seed industry and the public programs, wherein the seed industry derived much of its germplasm for new variety releases from the public sector. Beginning in the 1970s, the numbers of public breeders began to decline, while the numbers, especially of PhD plant breeders in the private sector, began to proliferate. Throughout this 100-year period university personnel were actively involved in vegetable variety trials, both on main campuses as well as at experiment stations, and in many cases in locales in various counties through cooperative efforts with county agents. Up through this period much credit could be given to individual faculty members for their involvement in such endeavors. In the past 10 to 20 years, many things have changed in university operations and perspectives, namely faculty are only given credit for refereed publications, regardless of the area in which they work. Moreover, they must constantly procure money to support their programs. In the past, vegetable variety testing generally did not lead to refereed publications and was not supported by the industry. Moreover, as previously mentioned many of the public programs in germplasm improvement for vegetables across the United States have ceased, thus ending a direct need for variety testing to support these programs. The critical issue for today's faculty is the relative importance of variety testing and delivering information to the general public versus how they would support such a program and eventually get academic credit for conducting such a program.

Open access

Daniel J. Cantliffe

Abstract

‘Winter Bloomsdale’ spinach plants were grown in a growth chamber with a light intensity of 2400 ft-c until 2 weeks before harvest when light intensity treatments of 600, 1600, 2400, and 3500 ft-c were imposed. The total N and NO3 concn of the leaves were increased by the addition of N to the soil and by reduction of light intensity. At 600 ft-c the plants accumulated NO3-N and total N at all soil N levels, but response to soil increments of N was greater at higher light intensities. The concn of K in the tissue increased with a reduction in the light intensity from 2400 to 600 ft-c or application of N fertilizer to 200 mg/kg of soil. Less P was found in spinach leaves as N fertilizer was added to 100 mg/kg of soil. The P content was variable with light intensity.

Open access

Daniel J. Cantliffe

Abstract

Pickling cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) were grown at high plant population (250,000 plants/ha) for once-over harvest. Nitrogen was applied preplant, 0 to 268 kg/ha, and sidedress, 0 to 112 kg/ha, from 2 N sources, NH4NO3 and urea. The effects of N fertilization practices on mineral nutrient composition of the tissue was studied. The concentration of NO3-N in leaf blade and petiole tissue rapidly decreased during the last 2 to 3 weeks before harvest (fruit sizing period). Preplant and sidedress N fertilizer applications led to increased tissue concentration of NO3-N and total N. Petiole tissue concentration less than 0.8% NO3-N or greater than 1.5% at harvest usually reflected reduced yields. Optimum yields generally occurred when blades contained 4 to 5% total N. The source of N fertilizer used had little influence on tissue concentration of NO3-N and total N. Nitrogen fertilization practices had a direct influence on the mineral nutrient composition of the leaf tissue at harvest. Tissue concentration of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn were higher in tissue that received preplant fertilizer N rates from 67 to 201 kg/ha compared to plants that received no preplant N, while the Na concn was reduced. Sidedressing N fertilizer had little influence on cation and anion accumulation in the tissue.