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  • Author or Editor: Daniel Esmenjaud x
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Fourteen Prunus rootstocks were evaluated against mixtures of several isolates of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus vulnus Allen and Jensen in three greenhouse experiments. Most of the tested rootstocks are new releases or materials in advanced stages of selection that also have incorporated root-knot nematode resistance. The plums Torinel (Prunusdomestica L.) and Redglow (P. salicina Lindl. P. munsoniana Wight and Hedrick cv. Jewel) showed a moderately resistant response; their final nematode population levels were lower or slightly higher than inoculation levels. Low nematode reproduction also was found in the peach–almond hybrid G N No 22 [P. persica (L.) Batsch P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] and the plum Bruce (P. salicina P. angustifolia Marsh.), and although these rootstocks did not perform as well as Torinel and Redglow, they also appear to be poor hosts for P. vulnus.

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New Prunus rootstocks and selections were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, M. incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood), or M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood. Most of the clones were peach-almond hybrids (P-AHs) [P. persica (L.) Batsch × P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] or plums of Spanish and French origin. In a first experiment, the P-AH Hansen 2-168 and plums GF-31 (P. cerasifera Ehr.) and GF 8-1 (P. cerasifera × P. munsoniana Weigth et Hedr.) were highly resistant to the mixture of five isolates of M. javanica. The P-AHs Barrier and Titan × Nemared were resistant and moderately resistant, respectively; GF-677, MB 3-13, MB 2-2, and MB 2-6 were susceptible. In the second and third experiment, the plums P 1079, P 2175, the hybrids Afgano (P. dasycarpa Ehrh.), G × N No 22, and G × N No 15, both P-AHs, and Nemared peach were highly resistant to mixtures of five isolates of M. incognita or M. arenaria. The plums P 2980 (P. cerasifera) and GF 8-1 tested against either root-knot species were also highly resistant. Cachirulo × (G × N No 9), a P-AH, showed less resistance to M. arenaria than to M. incognita. Montclar (P. persica) and the P-AHs Torrents AC and GF-677 were susceptible to both species.

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The influence of salinity and plant age on nematode reproduction was determined on two susceptible and six root-knot-nematode-resistant Prunus rootstocks inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White). Experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions over 120 (plant age study) and 75 (salinity study) days. Following inoculation with 4000 nematodes per plant, susceptible 2-month-old GF-677 (Prunus persica L. Batsch. × P. dulcis Mill. Webb) and Montclar (P. persica) were affected significantly more than 1-year-old plants. Barrier (P. persica × P. davidiana Carr. Franch.) plantlets showed a partial loss of resistance in relation to older plants, suggesting that a root tissue maturation period is required for expression of full resistance. Nemared (P. persica); G × N No 22 (P. persica × P. dulcis); and the plums GF 8-1 (P. cerasifera Ehrh. × P. munsoniana Wight and Hedrick), PSM 101 (P. insititia L.), and P 2980 (P. cerasifera) maintained their high level of resistance or immunity, regardless of plant age. Nematode reproduction was higher in GF-677 rootstock in saline soil. Nemared and Barrier showed similar low galling and nematode reproduction in nonsaline and saline soil. PSM 101 immunity to M. incognita was not affected by soil condition.

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