Illumination during storage was proven to extend the storability of seedlings, but little attention has been given to the underlying mechanism. To determine how light conditions affect photosynthetic status in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings, differences of stomatal development and relative photosynthetic characteristics of expanding new leaves when stored for 8 days at 15 °C in light at a photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 15 μmol·m−2·s−1 or darkness were investigated. The stomatal density (SD) increased with time to a peak and then decreased from the start of storage in light to the subsequent transplantation. Dark storage retarded the stomatal development and delayed the appearance of the peak of SD. Compared with those under dark storage, light-stored seedlings showed significantly higher SD and stomatal index (SI) in leaves accompanied by higher maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII). During storage in darkness, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII declined steeply with increasing storage duration but recovered gradually to reach the same level of those in light at the fourth day after transplanting. Seedlings stored in light for 8 days showed higher net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g S), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (Tr) than in darkness. The post-storage recovery of Pn, g S, and Tr were closely related to the SI, which ensured the fast recovery of photosynthesis during the early stage of transplanting. In agreement with the change of SD, no differences in Pn, g S, Ci, and Tr between light and dark storage were observed after 8 days of transplantation. Seedlings stored in light appeared vigorous and the shoot dry weight was significantly higher than that of dark-stored ones. Although seedlings in dark storage had a poor appearance during storage, they showed inhibited regrowth potentials during the subsequent transplanting stage. This study exhibited that light in short-term storage contributed to maintaining stomatal development as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon, which could also extend to post-storage for ensuring the transplant quality of seedlings after removal from storage.
Qingqing Duan, Ye Lin, Wu Jiang, and Danfeng Huang
Doudou Guo, Ziyi Chen, Danfeng Huang, and Jingjin Zhang
Water management is one of the most important operations in greenhouse baby leaf production. However, growers mainly irrigate the plants based on experience, which generally leads to yield loss, uneven quality, and low water-use efficiency. This study evaluated four evapotranspiration (ET) models, such as Radsum, Penman methods, FAO Penman-Monteith, and Priestley-Taylor, for irrigation strategy by predicting the ET level of greenhouse baby pakchoi [Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt] under different plant densities (72-, 128-, 200-, and 288-plug tray). Among environmental factors, net radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) had the highest correlation with ET, with R 2 of 0.93 and 0.94, respectively. Plant growth period was divided into different stages according to canopy development and substrate surface coverage. The corresponding crop coefficient (Kc) was introduced into ET prediction models. The result shows overestimation of ETc (crop evapotranspiration) by the Radsum and Penman methods. FAO Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor methods performed the best with R 2 ≈0.7 for all planting densities. These two methods are recommended for greenhouse irrigation scheduling in baby pakchoi production.
Leqi Yang, Xiao Yang, Hong Zhao, Danfeng Huang, and Dongqin Tang
Overhead irrigation is widely used to water lettuce during commercial production in China but exerts potential water wastage and pollution. Subirrigation is thought as a water-saving, high-efficiency fertigation strategy. However, few studies have compared the nutritional value and nitrate content of lettuce grown using subirrigation with plants cultivated with overhead irrigation. Therefore, this study explored the ability of ebb-and-flow subirrigation strategies to produce high yields of a leafy lettuce (cultivar Biscia Rossa) with high nutritional value and low nitrate content. Lettuce plants were cultivated in an ebb-and-flow subirrigation system with different irrigation frequencies (every 2 or 3 days) and immersion times (5, 10 or 15 minutes); overhead irrigation was used as control. Ebb-and-flow subirrigation significantly enhanced several lettuce growth parameters, significantly increased the level of vitamin C, and significantly decreased the nitrate content of lettuce leaves compared with overhead irrigation. The optimal subirrigation strategy for lettuce production was irrigation every 3 days with 15 minutes immersion; this ebb-and-flow subirrigation protocol could potentially be used to save water and resources, improve yield and nutrient contents and reduce nitrate content in commercial greenhouse lettuce production.
Xiaotao Ding, Liyao Yu, Yuping Jiang, Shaojun Yang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu, and Danfeng Huang
Changes in leaf length, width, area, weight, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, and photosynthetic variables with different leaf positions were investigated in fruit cucumber. Plants were grown on rockwool slabs in an environmentally controlled greenhouse and irrigated by drip fertigation. Leaf measurements were conducted from the first to the 15th leaf (the oldest to the youngest). The results showed that fresh weight per unit leaf area decreased from the second to the 15th leaf. Changes in cucumber leaf length, width, and area followed quadratic models from the first to the 15th leaf. The quadratic models of leaf length, width, and area fit the measurements well, with R 2 values of 0.925, 0.951, and 0.955, respectively. The leaf chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid contents increased from the oldest leaf (first leaf) to the youngest leaf and decreased after reaching the highest values. Changes in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) also followed the quadratic model from the first to the 15th leaf, with R 2 values of 0.975. The leaf transpiration rate (Tr) increased from the first to the 14th leaf. Our results revealed patterns in leaf growth and photosynthetic changes at different leaf positions in fruit cucumber and improved our understanding of the growth and development of fruit cucumber in the greenhouse production system.
Xiaotao Ding, Yuping Jiang, Dafeng Hui, Lizhong He, Danfeng Huang, Jizhu Yu, and Qiang Zhou
Adequate greenhouse environmental management is very important for improving resource use efficiency and increasing vegetable yield. The objective of this study was to explore suitable climate and cultivation management for cucumber to achieve high yield and build optimal yield models in semi-closed greenhouses. A fruit cucumber cultivar Deltastar was grown over 4 years in greenhouse and weekly data of yields (mean, highest and lowest) and environmental variables, including total radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration were collected. Regression analyses were applied to develop the relationships and build best regression models of yields with environmental variables using the first 2 years of data. Data collected in years 3 and 4 were used for model validation. Results showed that total radiation, nutrient, temperature, CO2 concentration, and average nighttime relative humidity had significant correlations with cucumber yields. The best regression models fit the mean, lowest, and highest yields very well with R 2 values of 0.67, 0.66, and 0.64, respectively. Total radiation and air temperature had the most significant contributions to the variations of the yields. Our results of this study provide useful information for improving greenhouse climate management and yield forecast in semi-closed greenhouses.
Ming Ding, Beibei Bie, Wu Jiang, Qingqing Duan, Hongmei Du, and Danfeng Huang
Low-temperature storage in darkness is usually used for preserving seedlings for a short period. To investigate whether grafted watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] seedlings are superior to non-grafted ones under low-temperature storage in darkness and to study their physiological differences during storage, watermelon (‘Zaojia 84-24’) scions were grafted to pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ‘Zhuangshi’) rootstocks. Carbohydrate levels; chlorophyll and malondialdehyde contents; the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase; and photochemical efficiency were assayed during 6 days of storage at 15 °C in darkness. After that, seedlings were transplanted into an artificial climate chamber. The net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance (g S) were measured on the first and third days after transplanting. The results showed that the grafted watermelon seedlings had more soluble sugar and chlorophyll contents, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, and less malondialdehyde content than the non-grafted ones after 6 days of storage. In addition, low-temperature storage in darkness damaged the photosystem II of non-grafted watermelon seedlings more than that of grafted ones. After transplanting, grafted seedlings had a higher net photosynthetic rate. The results suggest that grafted watermelon seedlings were more suitable for the low-temperature storage in darkness than the non-grafted ones.