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  • Author or Editor: Dana Acimovic x
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Achieving desired fruit quality at harvest in cool climate conditions is a challenge, especially for red varieties, and the typical inability of fruit to reach technological maturity is a critical contributing factor requiring examination. To probe this issue, this research investigated the impact of two levels of crop thinning and of basal leaf removal at three phenological stages in the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in Michigan. Experiments were conducted at the Southwest Michigan Research and Extension Center (SWMREC) in Benton Harbor. Using ‘Cabernet franc’ (Vitis vinifera L.) vines, yield components (yield per vine, pruning weight, and cluster and berry weight) and basic fruit composition traits [total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity, anthocyanins, and phenolics) were studied to investigate the effect of cluster thinning and basal leaf removal on vine performance and fruit quality at harvest. Neither of the treatments significantly impacted TSS in either of the two seasons. Cluster thinning treatment successfully altered cropload ratio, indexed as Ravaz Index (RI), independently of the time of application. Basal leaf removal increased exposed berry temperature, cluster light exposure, and subsequent anthocyanin and phenolic content of the berry in both seasons, again independent of application date, whereas cluster thinning was effective only in 2012. Crop thinning coupled with basal leaf removal resulted in an increased efficiency in anthocyanin accumulation in relation to TSS accumulation, expressed as anthocyanin:sugar, in both years. This is significant because it offers potential for vineyard management practices aiming to improve fruit quality in cool climates where the onset of anthocyanin accumulation could be reduced and decoupled from sugar accumulation.

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We conducted a large (0.8 ha) field experiment of system × rootstock, using Super Chief Delicious apple as cultivar at Yonder farm in Hudson, NY, between 2007 and 2017. In this study, we compared six Geneva® rootstocks (‘G.11’, ‘G.16’, ‘G.210’, ‘G.30’, ‘G.41’, and ‘G.935’) with one Budagovsky (‘B.118’) and three Malling rootstocks (‘M.7EMLA’, ‘M.9T337’ and ‘M.26EMLA’). Trees on each rootstock were trained to four high-density systems: Super Spindle (SS) (5382 apple trees/ha), Tall Spindle (TS) (3262 apple trees/ha), Triple Axis Spindle (TAS) (2243 apple trees/ha), and Vertical Axis (VA) (1656 apple trees/ha). Rootstock and training system interacted to influence growth, production, and fruit quality. When comparing systems, SS trees were the least vigorous but much more productive on a per hectare basis. Among the rootstocks we evaluated, ‘B.118’ had the largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), followed by ‘G.30’ and ‘M.7EMLA’, which were similar in size but they did not differ statistically from ‘G.935’. ‘M.9T337’ was the smallest and was significantly smaller than most of the other rootstocks but it did not differ statistically from ‘G.11’, ‘G.16’, ‘G.210’, ‘G.41’, and ‘M.26EMLA’. Although ‘B.118’ trees were the largest, they had low productivity, whereas the second largest rootstock ‘G.30’ was the most productive on a per hectare basis. ‘M.9’ was the smallest rootstock and failed to adequately fill the space in all systems except the SS, and had low cumulative yield. The highest values for cumulative yield efficiency (CYE) were with ‘G.210’ for all training systems except for VA, where ‘M.9T337’ had the highest value. The lowest values were for all training systems with ‘B.118’ and ‘M.7EMLA’. Regardless of the training system, ‘M.7EMLA’ trees had the highest number of root suckers. Some fruit quality traits were affected by training system, rootstock or system × rootstock combination.

Open Access