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  • Author or Editor: D.W. Davis x
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Abstract

In genetic studies and in practical improvement programs for soluble solids in tomatoes, large plant populations and several readings on individual plants or lines are often desired. Although comminuting whole fruit or representative fruit portions in a blender prior to straining through cheesecloth is a satisfactory and widely used method for sampling, a simple, rapid procedure that could be used in the field would hasten the rapid screening of genetic material.

Open Access

Abstract

A 6-parent diallel was established in 1981 at Excelsior, Minn, and at Santa Paula, Calif, to analyze combining ability and heterosis for fruit quality of traits in bush muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.). GCA variance exceeded SCA variance for all traits. Minnesota breeding lines were superior in GCA for most interior quality traits, but inferior to Florida and California lines in exterior quality. Correlations between the performance of parents and the average of their hybrids were consistently positive, and often significant. Favorable heterosis over the midparent was shown for soluble solids, net density, and net rope, and, to a lesser extent, for flesh amount, rind thickness, cavity amount, and cavity dryness. A 3 × 10 design II at Excelsior showed estimates of additive variance exceeding those of dominance variance for all traits except fruit weight, shape index, and vein tract. The large estimates of additive variance provided for moderately high (40–70%) estimates of heritability for most traits.

Open Access

Abstract

Combining ability and heterosis for yield, maturity, and plant traits in bush muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were estimated through the use of a 6-parent diallel evaluated in 1981 at Excelsior, Minn. and at Santa Paula, Calif. The variance of GCA was greater than that of SCA for all traits. Minnesota 266 was the best general combiner for yield weight characteristics. Minnesota 101 was exceptional for GCA in those traits associated with earliness, and U.C. Perlita Bush and U.F. G508 combined well for main crop yield. Correlations between the performance of parental lines and the average of their hybrids were consistently positive and often significant. Favorable heterosis over the midparent was found for all traits but days to first fruit. Favorable heterosis over the superior parent was found for plant health and all yield traits except total number of fruit per plant. In a 3 × 10 design II at Excelsior, estimates of additive variance exceeded those of dominance variance in general, providing for moderately high heritability estimates (40–70%) for most traits.

Open Access

Abstract

Interplot interference, or the influence of one host genotype on another when grown in adjacent plots, can be a problem with the evaluation of partial resistance to airborne pathogens. Moreover, interplot interference may affect selection in the plant breeding nursery. To estimate the degree of interference in a typical sweet corn (Zea mays L.) breeding nursery, the partial resistance of 3 hybrids grown in several field plot treatments was examined. Treatments consisted of differing spatial arrangements of the 3 hybrids. In a 2-year study, mean rust level differed significantly for 5 field plot treatments. As the potential for leaf rust increased, the ability to distinguish between hybrid disease reaction diminished. In addition, the variability in disease reaction was reduced as rust potential increased for hybrid and field plot treatment, indicating that when high levels of leaf rust existed, disease gradients tended to flatten.

Open Access

Abstract

Evaluation of the progeny populations from crosses between a resistant sweet corn inbred (Zea mays L.) and 3 susceptible inbreds indicated that the variation for partial resistance to corn leaf rust (Puccinia sorghi Schw.) depended on the parents used. Heritability estimates were high with both additive and dominance gene effects important in character expression. Epistasis was shown to influence rust reaction in at least one cross. The ability to improve partial resistance in 2 sweet corn populations was demonstrated by 3 methods of selection.

Open Access

Abstract

The influence of common leaf rust (Puccinia sorghi Schw.) on 2 sweet corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids was compared in rusted and nonrusted plots for several maturity and ear quality characters. Differences were found for time of silking, ear length, ear diameter, and percentage of moisture between rusted and nonrusted plots. The percentage of Brix ranged from 4% to 25%, with the rusted plots always having reduced mean values. Correlations (P = 0.01) were found between ear diameter and percentage of moisture, percentage of Brix and percentage of moisture, and between ear length and ear diameter.

Open Access

Racemes of Big Bend bluebonnet (Lupinus havardii Wats.), a winter annual native to far west Texas with attractive blue flowers, are currently being produced commercially as a specialty cut-flower crop. Our studies indicated that the key determinants of postharvest longevity and performance are flower abscission and flower senescence, both of which can be influenced by ethylene. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the role of some ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors (aminooxy acetic acid = AOA; cobalt = CO++; salicylic acid = SA) and an ethylene action inhibitor (silver thiosulfate = STS) on flower abscission and flower senescence of bluebonnet racemes. Depending on the concentration used (10 μM - 1 mM), AOA and CO++ exhibited variable effects on flower abscission, flower senescence and vaselife. SA (10-100 μM) slightly delayed senescence but did not affect abscission, while higher levels of SA (500 μM - 2 mM) slightly promoted abscission and also significantly enhanced the senescence of flowers on cut racemes. The effects of SA were found to be pH-dependent. However, STS nearly eliminated flower abscission and enhanced vaselife. The results also demonstrated that the abscission of bluebonnet flowers, in particular, is highly sensitive to ethylene.

Free access

Abstract

MN 13 and MN 150 are extra-early maturing cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] adapted to northern regions possessing a continental climate. They reach the mature-green harvest stage at about 1000 heat units (10°C base, air temperature) under Minnesota conditions, and can be harvested in early August from a late-May sowing. Both lines appear to be tolerant to bacterial blight (Xanthomonas vignicola Burkh.), based on field observation.

Open Access

Abstract

Minnesota 266 is an early maturing, andromonecious, short-internode breeding line of muskmelon, Cucumis melo L., from the vegetable improvement program of the Departments of Horticultural Science and Landscape Architecture, and Plant Pathology. It has value for the home garden and, in addition, it should be useful as a germplasm source for selection as well as for the development of commercial hybrids and/or types for mechanical harvesting.

Open Access

Abstract

Minnesota 108 is a breeding line of pea (Pisum sativum L.) developed by cooperative effort of the Departments of Horticultural Science and Landscape Architecture and Plant Pathology. This germplasm combines near-commercial type and resistance to common root rot caused by Aphanomyces euteiches (Drechs.), and to fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f sp. pisi (Linford) race 1 Snyder & Hansen. It should be useful as a germplasm source for the transfer of root rot resistance to commercial cultivars by means of an improved testing technique (2).

Open Access