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  • Author or Editor: D.R. Williams x
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Results from research funded by RAMP (Risk Assessment and Mitigation Program) funds conducted with sweetpotato growers in Mississippi during 2004 and 2005 are discussed. Insects were sampled on a weekly (2004) or biweekly (2005) schedule on land planted to potatoes with and without insecticidal input. Potatoes were harvested from each cooperator's field and evaluated for insect damage one or more times at the end of the season. Insect pest populations in Mississippi sweetpotatoes were relatively low during 2004 and 2005. Under these conditions, the percentage of sweetpotatoes damaged by insects was only slightly reduced by insecticides. Chrysomelid leaf beetles including flea beetles, cucumber beetles and tortoise beetles were the most obvious group of pest insects. The most prominent insect species in sweep net samples during the season was the sweetpotato flea beetle, however damage by this pest was negligible. The most damaging insect based on our evaluation of root damage was the twelve-spotted cucumber beetle. Root feeding by whitefringed beetles, white grubs, and sugarcane beetles was sporadic within the fields in the study, and damage by these insects was generally minimal in 2004 and 2005. Preliminary assessments of the effect of crops planted the year previous to the planting of sweetpotatoes indicate the following order of greater to lesser insect damage: pasture, soybeans, corn, sweetpotato, and cotton. Delay of harvest beyond the optimum harvest date tended to increase insect damage in marketable roots. Pesticide evaluations associated with the study indicate that some reduction in damaged roots may be derived from application of a soil-incorporated insecticide at lay by.

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Fresh-shelled southernpeas [Vignaunguiculata(L.) Walp.] is a popular vegetable. Postharvest storage of fresh-shelled peas is a crucial step in the production process. Farmers strive to produce a product that is high in quality and freshness with appropriate texture and appealing color. Improper storage and handling of southernpeas will result in deterioration. In an effort to prevent potential losses of southernpeas, this study was conducted to determine the best method to ship and store shelled peas. Five southernpea varieties: `Early Acre', `Early Scarlet', `Excel Select', `Coronet', and `Arkansas Blackeye #1' were planted in a randomized block design at the University of Arkansas. Twelve mature green pods of each variety were subjected to a sweated and unsweated treatment and then shelled. After shelling, seed were subjected to four different environmental conditions, and each treatment was evaluated for changes in physical appearance. Objectives of the study were to determine the best variety and environmental condition to maintain a quality marketable product. The study showed that a refrigerated environment at or near 3 to 5 °C allowed the crop to be stored for up to 2 weeks. It also appeared that sweating assisted with the shelling process and maintained appearance of each variety longer.

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Abstract

The effect of time of harvest prior to complete field drying of 2 cultivars of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was analyzed relative to the quality of the processed product produced. Early harvest did not significantly affect yield (at 10% raw product moisture); however, it did have a significant effect on the quality of the processed product. Typically the processed dark red kidney and pinto beans were more intensely pigmented with later harvest dates, were firmer, and had fewer split seeds. The respiratory rate of the raw product was highly correlated (r = 0.993) with the raw product moisture level. Only small differences were found in the degree of pigmentation of the processed product when comparing the spring with the fall crop of pinto beans. The fall crop of pinto beans had a substantially lower incidence of split beans in the canned product.

Open Access

Shoots of greenhouse-grown Algerian ivy (Hedera canariensis L.) were surface disinfected and explanted on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BA (10 μm) and NAA (2.5 μm). One month later the shoots were transferred to MS proliferation medium supplemented with TDZ (0.1 or 0.5 μm) and NAA (40 μm). An average of three microshoots developed on each stem treated with TDZ. Pruned shoots grown on MS medium supplemented with GA3 (20 μm) and BA (20 μm) branched better than unpruned shoots (3.7 vs. 1 per explant, respectively). Rooted shoots grown ex vitro grew and developed a shape suitable for commercial sale in 3 months. Chemical names used: N -(phenyl-methyl)-l H -purine-6-amine (BA); gibberellic acid (GA3); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NM); N -phenyl-W-1,2,3-thiadiazo-5-yl urea (Thidiazuron, TDZ).

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Abstract

Succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhy drazide (Alar) applied commercially to 'De licious’ apple trees at a concentration of 1,000 ppm at 8 and 125 days after full bloom in 1968 caused flattened misshapen fruit to be produced in 1969.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Delicious’ apples treated with a 1,000 ppm spray of succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH) at 70 to 80 days after full bloom were firmer than control fruit at harvest and remained firmer throughout the 9-month storage period.

Open Access

A fresh-market tomato trial was conducted in 2003 at two locations in Arkansas (Fayetteville and Kibler) to evaluate new and old tomato varieties of interest to home gardeners and farmers' markets. The observational trial consisted of 43 varieties, indeterminates and determinates. Heirloom tomatoes comprised a large portion of the trial due to increasing popularity. Heirlooms are unique and can be very eye-catching. There is immense variety in shape, size, and color. They can be large or small, many times the shape is irregular, and the fruits flawed (cracking, cat-facing, green shoulders). The fruit may not store or ship well; most are grown and sold locally. Some heirlooms are better than others. A few of the varieties that stood out in the trial were Costoluto Genovese, Abraham Lincoln, Dona, and Persimmon. Costoluto Genovese, a uniquely ruffled red tomato, was the highest yielding variety at the Kibler location. Fruit quality remained high even in the highest temperatures. One of the most promising was a orange variety called Persimmon, it produced large fruit and the plants provided excellent cover. Dona and Abraham Lincoln, both reds, yielded well and had good flavor. San Marzano and Arkansas 7985 were the best paste types. Arkansas varieties such as Bradley, Ozark Pink, and Arkansas Traveler 76 also did well. Brandywine varieties had low yields and lesser quality fruit. Green zebra, a green striped fruit with good flavor, yielded less due to Blossom End Rot. Cherokee Purple and Carbon were two from the purple/black category that did not do well; yields were low and the fruit cracked.

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Tomatoes have been associated with numerous outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Trace-backs suggest tomato fruits may become contaminated during preharvest. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for Salmonella enterica serotype Newport to be internalized into the roots, stems, leaves, and fruit of red round tomato plants through contaminated irrigation water at various stages of plant development. Tomato plants were irrigated with 250 or 350 mL (depending on growth stage) of 7 log CFU·mL−1 S. Newport-contaminated irrigation water every 7 days. Roots, stems, leaves, and two tomato fruit from plants irrigated with S. Newport or water (negative control) were sampled for contamination at five stages of growth. Twenty-five of the 92 total samples taken from plants irrigated with S. Newport were confirmed positive (serovar specificity was not evaluated). Sixty-five percent of confirmed samples were roots, 40% were stems, 10% were leaves, and 6% were fruit. There was a significant difference in the presence of S. enterica according to tissue sampled (roots > stems > leaves, and fruit) (P < 0.05) and no association between growth stage and contamination (P > 0.05). Contamination of tomato fruit with S. Newport introduced through irrigation water is low because a high level of persistent contamination of a plant in the agricultural setting is unlikely.

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Abstract

A 2-year study involving 15 garden vegetables and 5 different-sized gardens was conducted to assess land, labor, and production efficiency. As garden size increased, total production increased, but yield per unit area decreased. Relative labor inputs varied with garden size, but were greatest for harvesting (38%) followed by planting (23%), miscellaneous (22%), and weeding (17%). The highest production in relationship to labor and land use was obtained with beets, carrots, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, and summer squash. The poorest yielding crops were pole and bush beans, sweet corn, peas, peppers, and radishes. Total vegetable yield for the 2-year study averaged 6.2 kg/m2.

Open Access

With increased mobile device usage, mobile applications (apps) are emerging as an extension medium, well suited to “place-less” knowledge transfer. Conceptualizing, designing, and developing an app can be a daunting process. This article summarizes the considerations and steps that must be taken to successfully develop an app and is based on the authors’ experience developing two horticulture apps, IPMPro and IPMLite. These apps provide information for major pests and plant care tasks and prompt users to take action on time-sensitive tasks with push notifications scheduled specifically for their location. Topics such as selecting between a web app and a native app, choosing the platform(s) for native apps, and designing the user interface are covered. Whether to charge to download the app or have free access, and navigating the intra- and interinstitutional agreements and programming contract are also discussed. Lastly, the nonprogramming costs such as creating, editing, and uploading content, as well as ongoing app management and updates are discussed.

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