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T.E. Morelock, D.R. Motes, and A.R. Gonzalez

Southernpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop in the southern United States. The Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of three varieties. `Excel' produces a compact bush plant, from 45–60 cm tall with no basal runners. Pods are deep purple, 20–25 cm long and shell easily at the green mature stage. Flowering and fruiting are concentrated, with the pods produced at the top of the plant on medium-length peduncles. Seed has a bright pinkeye and is similar in size to pinkeye purple hull BVR but matures 3–4 days earlier. `Early Scarlet' produces a medium sized plant, from 60–75 cm tall with no basal runners. Pods are light red, 20–25 cm long and shell easily at the green mature stage. Flowering and fruiting are concentrated at the top of the plant with pods produced on medium-length peduncles. Seed has a light pinkeye and is similar in size to `Pinkeye Purple Hull BVR' but matures 2–3 days earlier. `Arkansas Blackeye #1' produces a bush plant, from 50–65 cm tall with no basal runners. The pods are silver, 20–25 cm long and shell easily. Flowering and fruiting are concentrated with the pods produced in the top of the plant on medium-length peduncles. Seed has a distinct medium-sized blackeye and the seed are very similar in size, type and eye pattern to `California #5 Blackeye'. Maturity is normally 2–3 days earlier than `Pinkeye Purple Hull BVR'.

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T.E. Morelock, D.R. Motes, and A.R. Gonzalez

Southernpeas (Vigna ungurculata) are a popular crop in the southeastern United States. They are an important crop to Arkansas processors, market gardeners, and home gardeners. While the bulk of the acreage produced in the state is pinkeye purple hull types, there is a demand for other horticultural types. At present, there is not a well-adapted blackeye that is available to producers in the state. For that reason, Arkansas Blackeye #1 is being released. Arkansas Blackeye #1 has been widely tested under the designation Arkansas 91-245. It produces a medium-sized bush plant that is well suited to conventional or narrow row spacing and matures 2 to 3 days earlier than Coronet under Arkansas conditions. Arkansas Blackeye #1 produces yield similar to the best pinkeye purple hull types. Samples have been canned by the Food Science Dept. at the Univ. of Arkansas and the canned samples have compared favorably to the industry standards.

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T.E. Morelock, D.R. Motes, and A.R. Gonzalez

Southernpea (cowpea), Vigna ungiculata L. Walp, is an important processing and fresh-market vegetable in the southern United States. While many of the newer varieties are early maturing, there is still a need for late-maturing, high-yielding varieties. Arkansas 92-552 fills this niche. It is a bush plant that produces silver pods in the upper portion of large plants that are free of basal runners. The seed are medium size with a bright pink eye. Maturity is 5 to 7 days later than `Coronet' under Arkansas conditions. The variety processes well and canned peas have been rated equal to `Coronet' by consumers panels. The yield potential is high and it has produced higher yield than `Coronet' in replicated trials in Arkansas. 92-552 is also resistant to rootknot nematode.

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T.E. Morelock, J.L. Bowers, D.R. Davis, and D.R. Motes

Southernpeas are an important crop to Arkansas processors, market gardeners and home gardeners. While the bulk of the acreage produced in the state is pinkeye purple hull types, there is a demand for other horticultural types. At present some processors consider `White Acre' to be the standard of cream pea quality, but under Arkansas conditions, `White Acre' produces excessive vine growth, is very late to mature and is susceptible to bacterial blight. For these reasons, the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of `Early Acre'. `Early Acre' has been widely tested under the designation Arkansas 84-154 and produces a very compact bush plant that has seed similar in size and shape to `White Acre', but matures 8-10 days earlier under Arkansas conditions. Although the plant type is well suited to narrow row spacing, `Early Acre' has produced yields similar to `White Acre' when both are planted at conventional row spacings. Samples have been canned by the Dept. of Food Science at the University of Arkansas and the samples have been rated equal to `White Acre' in processed quality. “Early Acre' has exhibited high levels of resistance to bacterial blight in replicated yield trials under field epidemics in both Arkansas and Texas.

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Teddy E. Morelock, J. C. Correll, Frank J. Dainello, and D. R. Motes

Spinach, Spinacia oleracea, is a highly nutritious vegetable that is increasing in popularity more rapidly than any other salad crop. In the eastern United States spinach production is severely impacted by white rust, Albugo occidentalis. For many years, the University of Arkansas has bred spinach to cope with this endemic problem. While fungicides can provide a degree of control, the combination of genetic resistance and fungicides is the most effective method to insure production stability. `Evergreen' and F415 are the latest developments of this breeding program. `Evergreen', widely tested as Ark 88-212, is a slow growing, dark green, semi-savoy spinach that exhibits a good level of white rust resistance. It is not long-standing and should not be used for spring production in Arkansas and Oklahoma. It has been widely tested in Arkansas and Texas. F415, widely tested as Ark 91-415, is an upright, dark green, flat leaf spinach that has a good level of white rust resistance. It is is well suited to the Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas production area and, because of its better color and more upright growth habit, it should replace Ark F380.

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Teddy E. Morelock, D. R. Motes, L. W. Martin, and S. E. Eaton

Southernpeas, Vigna unguiculata, are a popular vegetable in the southeastern United States. Southernpeas (cowpeas) are widely known by the many different horticultural types, i.e., blackeye, pinkeye, purple hull, cream, cowder, etc. `Elegance' was widely tested under the designation Ark 96-918. It was entered in the Regional Southernpea Cooperative Trials from 1997–2002, where it performed well. It is a root-knot nematode resistant cream that exhibits an upright bush habit with concentrated pod set and good yield potential. The seed are medium size and produce a high quality canned product. `Elegance' is unique in the fact that it is a purple hull cream with the pods turning from dark green to purple when the seed reach the green mature stage. The second release, Ark 98-348, is a selection out of `Chinese Red' that is less viney and has a more concentrated pod set and maturity than the `Chinese Red' types that are commercially grown. It was tested in the observational Regional Southernpea Cooperative Trials from 2000–02. In trials at the University of Arkansas Vegetable Substation, it outyielded industry standard `Chinese Red' types Ark 93-640 and 93-641, by 30%.

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T.E. Morelock, J.A. Kirkpatrick, D.R. Motes, J.C. Correll, and F.J. Daniello

The current national trends in nutrition have resulted in a very high interest in the benefits of proper diet. It is very apparent that adding foods high in antioxidants to the human diet can have drastic affects on human health by reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, as well as age-related degenerative diseases. It is well-known and well-documented that spinach is one of the very best vegetables in antioxidant potential. It is high in beta-carotene (provitamin A) and is also very high in lutein (a carotenoid that is a strong antioxidant but with no vitamin A activity). Lutein has also been documented to have the potential to significantly reduce macular degeneration in humans when added to the diet on a regular basis. With these health benefits in mind the Univ. of Arkansas is releasing the spinach breeding line that has been tested as 88-310. It is a slow-growing semi-savoy that exhibits excellent color and has a moderate level of white rust resistance. It has excellent plant type, producing a very attractive compact rosette plant that is very desirable for root cut whole plants or for various types of clipped spinach. It is best-suited to both fall and overwinter production in Arkansas and for winter production in the Texas wintergarden. Seed for tests can be obtained by contacting T.E. Morelock, Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701.

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N.R. Burgos, L. Brandenberger, C. Thomas, L. Wells, V. Shivrain, D. Motes, S. Eaton, L. Martin, and T. Morelock

Southernpea is a major vegetable crop in Arkansas and Oklahoma for commercial production and home gardens. Complete weed control is necessary for this crop in commercial production to keep the peas free of contaminants and achieve high harvest efficiency. Several weeds like pigweed, cocklebur, velvetleaf, lambsquarters, hophornbeam copperleaf, nightshade, nutsedge, and morninglories are difficult to control in this crop because of limited herbicide options. Sandea (halosulfuron) is an excellent herbicide for nutsedge control and has activity on most of the weeds mentioned above. It has both soil and foliar activity. Sandea is labeled for several vegetable crops and southernpea may have enough tolerance to Sandea to warrant a label expansion. Experiments were conducted in Arkansas and Oklahoma between 2002 and 2005 to determine the tolerance of southernpea to Sandea and its efficacy on some weed species. In Oklahoma, trials were conducted in LeFlore County and at the Bixby Research Station in 2002 and 2003. Treatments consisted of various herbicides applied preemergence (PRE) or postemergence (POST), among which were some Sandea treatments. The doses of Sandea tested ranged from 0.024 to 0.048 lb a.i./A with some treatments applied with Basagran (bentazon), POST. Preemergence treatments were applied at 20 GPA and POST treatments at 30 GPA. Experimental units were arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. The cultivar used was Early Scarlet. Plots were comprised of four rows, spaced either 30 or 36 inches, depending on location, 15 ft long. The crop at Bixby was irrigated, but not at LeFlore. In Arkansas, two experiments were conducted in 2005 at the Vegetable Station in Kibler. One experiment was setup in a split-plot design, with four replications, with cultivar as mainplot and Sandea treatments as subplot. Eleven advanced breeding lines and Early Scarlet were used. Four Sandea treatments, using doses of 0.048 and .096 lb ai/A applied either PRE, at 1 to 2-trifoliate (early POST), and at 3- to 4-trifoliate (late POST) were tested. The second experiment compared the responses of 16 advanced breeding lines and Early Scarlet to 0.096 lb a.i./A Sandea applied PRE. Plot size at Kibler consisted of 4 rows, spaced 36 inches, 20 ft long. Herbicide treatments were applied at 20 GPA spray volume and the crop was sprinkler irrigated as needed. In Oklahoma, the commercial rate of Sandea (0.032 to 0.048 lb a.i.) did not cause any injury to southernpea when applied PRE regardless of availability of irrigation. However, when applied POST, significant stunting (up to about 20%) of plants was observed in both locations. This level of injury did not cause significant yield loss. The trial at Bixby could not be harvested due to excessive pigweed biomass later in the season. Sandea controlled Palmer amaranth and carpetweed >90% when applied PRE, but had no activity on these species when applied POST. Conversely, Sandea had excellent activity (100%) on common cocklebur when applied POST, but ineffective when applied PRE. Trials in Arkansas were strictly for tolerance evaluation so no weed control data was collected. In Arkansas, the PRE timing was also safer than POST when 0.096 lb ai Sandea was used. The 11 advanced lines tested in trial 1 were among the top 15 lines selected for tolerance to Sandea from a preliminary screen. These selected lines still showed different levels of tolerance to high rates of Sandea, but may not show any difference among each other at the recommended rates. The best lines were 00-609 and 00-178, which showed no yield reduction when treated with 0.096 lb ai Sandea PRE. All advanced lines had higher yield than Early Scarlet without herbicide treatment. In trial 2, 01-103, 01-180, and 01-181 had 0% to 10% yield loss when treated with 0.096 lb ai Sandea, PRE. All three had similar or greater yield than Early Scarlet. The commercial standard incurred about 20% to 30% yield loss from the high dose of Sandea applied PRE in both trials in Arkansas. Sandea is safe for cowpea, PRE at recommended doses. However, some advanced lines can tolerate high rates of Sandea. Some weeds are controlled by Sandea PRE, but not POST and vice versa.

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C.A. Mullins, C. R. Mote, R. A. Straw, D.L. Coffey, G. M. Lessman, J. G. Graveel, and V. D. Adams

Tomatoes and sweet corn grew and produced equally well under no-tillage and conventional tillage methods in 1989. Simulated rainfall was applied through an overhead irrigation system four times during the growing period with 2.8 cm of water applied during each event. Total solids in collected runoff water were higher with conventional tillage than with no-tillage. Residue levels of atrazine, metolachlor, mancozeb, esfenvalerate, metribuzin, and metalaxyl and concentrations of N, P, and K in runoff water were determined and varied with runoff event, pesticide, nutrient, crop, and tillage method.