Resin glycosides extracted from sweetpotato skins were bioassayed for their effects on survival, development, and fecundity of diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella (L.). Glycosides were incorporated into an artificial diet (Bio-Serv, Inc.) and fed to diamondback larvae. Neonatals were individually fed artificial diet with 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 mg·mL-1. There were highly significant negative correlations between glycoside levels and survival as well as weight of survivors after 6 days. A significant positive relationship existed between dosages and development time. Lifetime fecundity was negatively affected at sublethal doses. The glycosides are viewed as contributors to resistance to the wireworm, Diabrotica and Systena insect complex.
J.K. Peterson and D.M. Jackson
Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright and Mark M. Alley
The objective of this study was to compare substrate solution nitrogen (N) availability, N immobilization, and nutrient leaching in a pine tree substrate (PTS), peat-lite (PL), and aged pine bark (PB) over time under greenhouse conditions. Pine tree substrate was produced from loblolly pine logs (Pinus taeda L.) that were chipped and hammer-milled to a desired particle size. Substrates used in this study were PTS ground through a 2.38-mm hammer mill screen, PL, and aged PB. A short-term (28-d) N immobilization study was conducted on substrates fertilized with 150 or 300 mg·L−1 NO3-N. Substrates were incubated for 4 days after fertilizing and NO3-N levels were determined initially and at the end of the incubation. A second medium-term study (10-week) was also conducted to evaluate the amount of N immobilized in each substrate when fertilized with 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg·L−1 N. In addition to determining the amounts of N immobilized, substrate carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux (μmol CO2/m−2·s−1) was also measured as an assessment of microbial activity, which can be an indication of N immobilization. A leaching study on all three substrates was also conducted to determine the amount of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphorus, and potassium leached over 14 weeks under greenhouse conditions. Nitrogen immobilization was highest in PTS followed by PB and PL in both the short- and medium-term studies. Nitrogen immobilization increased as fertilizer rate increased from 100 mg·L−1 N to 200 mg·L−1 N in PL and from 100 mg·L−1 N to 300 mg·L−1 N for PB and PTS followed by a reduction or no further increase in immobilization when fertilizer rates increased beyond these levels. Nitrogen immobilization was generally highest in all substrates 2 weeks after potting, after which immobilization tended to decrease over the course of several weeks with less of a decrease for PTS compared with PL and PB. Substrate CO2 efflux levels were highest in PTS followed by PB and PL at each measurement in both the short- and medium-term studies. Patterns of substrate CO2 efflux levels (estimate of microbial populations/activity) at both fertilizer rates and over time were positively correlated to N immobilization occurrence during the studies. Nitrate leaching over 14 weeks was lower in PTS than in PB or PL through 14 weeks. This work provides evidence of increased microbial activity and N immobilization in PTS compared with PB and PL. Increased N immobilization in PTS explains the lower nutrient (primarily N) levels observed in PTS during crop production and justifies the additional fertilizer required for comparable plant growth to PL and PB. This work also provides evidence of less NO3-N leaching in PTS compared with PL or PB during greenhouse crop production despite the higher fertilizer rates required for optimal plant growth in PTS.
Janice R. Bohac, D.M. Jackson, John D. Mueller and P.D. Dukes Sr.
Rolando López, Amnon Levi, B. Merle Shepard, Alvin M. Simmons and D. Michael Jackson
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), often causes serious damage to watermelon (Citrullus spp.), and there is a need to evaluate and identify watermelon germplasm resistant to T. urticae. Watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus), and U.S. plant introduction (PI) accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides and C. colocynthis, were evaluated for preference by T. urticae (number of adults and eggs on leaves). In open-choice experiments in the greenhouse and in laboratory rearing cages, there was a significant preference by T. urticae for watermelon cultivars, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus PIs, and C. lanatus var. citroides PIs over C. colocynthis PIs. All watermelon cultivars and PIs were infested, but the C. colocynthis PIs were significantly less infested with T. urticae. The C. colocynthis PIs may be useful sources for enhancing T. urticae resistance in cultivated watermelon.
S.J. Kays, W.J. McLaurin, Y. Wang, P.D. Dukes, J. Thies, J.R. Bohac and D.M. Jackson
J.R. Bohac, P.D. Dukes Sr., J.D. Mueller, H.F. Harrison, J.K. Peterson, J.M. Schalk, D.M. Jackson and J. Lawrence
Anna L. Testen, Delphina P. Mamiro, Hosea D. Mtui, Jackson Nahson, Ernest R. Mbega, David M. Francis and Sally A. Miller
Tomato is an important cash crop in many developing countries. However, smallholder farmers often lack access to improved cultivars and breeding programs to develop locally adapted cultivars are limited. Participatory crop improvement (PCI) approaches can be used to increase farmer access to improved cultivars. In this project, we used the mother and baby trial (MBT) design to introduce and evaluate tomato cultivars in three villages in the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Mother trials were conducted in seven environments within the three villages, and variance partitioning revealed significant genetic effects for all traits measured with h 2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.90 for yield and disease reaction, respectively. In baby trials, farmers provided qualitative rankings of cultivars for 16 characteristics, including vigor, yield, harvest period, diseases, insect damage, fruit quality, and salability. Results from baby trials indicated that introduced cultivars were locally acceptable to farmers, except for traits related to marketability. Outcome Mapping was used to evaluate progress in each of the three villages and results suggested that high stakeholder participation levels could predict future adoption of introduced cultivars. Our findings provide a framework for evaluating, selecting, and breeding tomato and other horticultural crops in developing countries using the MBT design for PCI.