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J.L. Sibley, J.M. Ruter and D.J. Eakes

Limited information exists for container production of red maple cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate first-year growth of container-grown `October Glory' at 3 locations with disparate climates in Georgia and Alabama (Tifton, Ga., Blairsville, Ga., and Auburn, Ala.). Rooted cuttings were planted in 9.2-L containers in one location in the same substrate in April 1995. Trees were transported to each location in mid-June and irrigated from overhead risers at 1.3 cm/day for 6 months until dormant, then transported to a single location for harvest. Despite weather differences among locations, final heights were not different (Blairsville 59.8 cm; Auburn 53.0 cm; and Tifton 60.2 cm). Shoot diameter increase and shoot dry weight was greatest at Tifton (8.4 mm, 17.5 g), least at Blairsville (6.3 mm, 9.2 g), with Auburn similar to both locations (6.8 mm, 12.2 g). Root dry weight and root: shoot ratio was greater in Tifton (17.2 g, 0.97) than Blairsville 14.9 g, 0.51) and Auburn (7.0 g, 0.64).

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A.L. Busby, D.G. Himelrick and D.J. Eakes.

Two cultivars of blackberry (Rubus sp.) were propagated in July under intermittent mist by rooting 2-node softwood stem cuttings. Differences in root development among cultivars were evident with the thornless erect cultivar, `Navaho', producing a better root system than the thorny erect cultivar, `Cheyenne'. Treatment of `Navaho' with 3000 and 8000 ppm indolebutyric acid (IBA) in water and treatment of `Cheyenne' with 8000 ppm IBA in water and 3000 ppm IBA in talc improved rooting.

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J. David Williams, D. Joseph Eakes and Harry G. Ponder

Strong academic abilities and practical work experience are important to employers of horticulture graduates. In greatest demand are students with competent personal and leadership abilities and technical skills. Increased class size and increased university core curriculum requirements hinder our capacity to develop these added skills within our curriculum. However, through extracurricular offerings we can offer students ways to develop skills that are not fully expressed in the academic arena. Student interaction in the traditional horticulture club requires practicing interpersonal relation and often conflict resolution skills. Students learn to work as a team to accomplish goals that they have set for themselves as a group. The Associate¥ Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) Student Career Days experience offers a highly effective means for reinforcing cognitive skills gained in the classroom and laboratory, as well as supplementing academic learning opportunities with technical activities beyond those offered in the curriculum.

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D.M. Cole, J.L. Sibley, E.K. Blythe, D.J. Eakes and K.M. Tilt

`Formosa' azalea (Rhododendron indicum) was grown for 4 months in 7.6-L (2 gal) containers in four substrate blends: 100% pine bark (PB) (by volume), 1 PB: 1 cotton gin compost (CGC), 3 PB: 1 CGC, and 3 PB: 1 peat (PT) at three irrigation levels [600, 1200, and 1800 mL·d-1 (20.3, 40.6, and 60.9 floz/d)] in a polyethylene-covered greenhouse. Plants were evaluated for growth on a biweekly basis using a growth index. Roots were evaluated visually at the end of the study using a 0 (no root growth) to 5 (root bound) scale. Initial physical properties were determined and leachates were collected every 30 days. There was no difference in percent increase in growth across irrigation and substrate treatments. Visual root rating was greatest (4.5) for azaleas grown in 3 PB: 1 PT and least (3.5) in 1 PB: 1 CGC. The two PB/CGC blends improved water-holding capacity (WHC) in comparison to 100% PB, with 1 PB: 1 CGC exhibiting the greatest WHC among all four substrates. Bulk density was greatest with the CGC-amended substrates. Leachate pH tended to increase and electrical conductivity (EC) tended to decrease with increasing irrigation volume. Leachates from the CGC-amended substrates were less acidic and EC tended to be similar or greater than leachates from the 100% PB and 3 PB: 1 PT substrates.

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D.M. Lauderdale, C.H. Gilliam, D.J. Eakes and G.J. Keever

Two tree species, Acer rubrum `October Glory' (October Glory red maple) and Quercus phellos (willow oak) were planted in Columbus, GA and Mobile, AL. Variables evaluated were location (park vs residential) and tree size (1.5 vs 3.0 inch caliper). Greater shoot elongation occurred with 1.5 inch red maples and willow oaks than with 3.0 inch caliper trees. First year growth differences were not related to photosynthesis, night respiration, leaf water potential, or foliar nitrogen levels. Little height or caliper change occurred with either species. Red maple shoot elongation was greater in Mobile than into Columbus. Growth was not affected by location within either city.

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C.K. Palmer, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever, J.W. Olive and D.J. Eakes

Pampas grass seedlings in 72-cell pack containers were transplanted into containers with a root observation window (17.8 × 10.2 cm) and treated with selected preemergence applied herbicides. Root numbers were counted in the upper and lower 8.9 cm of the viewing window until 16 days after treatment (DAT) when the windows became full of roots. Root growth in both the upper and lower window was suppressed with application of Factor 65 WG and Pendulum 60 WDG at the X and 2X rates at 16 DAT. Ronstar 2G and Pendulum 2G at the recommended rates and nontreated control plants had similar root numbers at 16 DAT. At 16 DAT, the greatest number of club roots formed on plants treated with the dinitroaniline herbicides; Pendulum 2G, Pendulum 60 WDG, and Factor 65 WG. Shoot growth was not affected by treatment.

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D.J. Eakes, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever and J.W. Olive

Uniform liners of Soft Touch Holly (Ilex crenata 'Soft Touch') and Fashion azalea {Rhododendron 'Fashion') were potted into trade gallon containers of a 3: 1 by volume pinebark: peat moss medium amended with 8.3 kg of 17-7-12 Osmocote and 0.9 kg of Micromax per m3. Dolomitic limestone rates were 0,3, and 6 kg per m3 of medium applied as a finely ground or pelletized product. Medium solution pH increased with increasing rate of dolomitic limestone. Ground dolomitic limestone had a greater impact on medium solution pH than pelletized dolomitic limestone and differences increased as rate increased. Addition of ground dolomitic limestone at 6 kg per m3 reduced foliar color and growth of azalea. Amending with dolomitic limestone had little or no effect on holly foliar color or growth, regardless of rate.

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T.J. Brass, G.J. Keever, C.H. Gilliam and D.J. Eakes

Red maple cultivars 'October Glory' and `Northwood' were grown in 7 gallon containers to determine the influence of styrene lining and copper coating of containers on container medium temperature and growth of red maple cultivars. Copper coating effectively reduced circling of roots at the container wall-medium interface. Root control with copper was less effective on `October Glory' (a more vigorous cultivar) than on `Northwood'. Height, caliper, and root dry weight also were less for `Northwood'. In the absence of copper, surface-root coverage was greater in foam - lined containers than in containers without foam where temperatures averaged 10°C higher.

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J. L. Sibley, D. J. Eakes, C. H. Gilliam, G. J. Keever and W. A. Dozier Jr.

Average leaf area (LA) and petiole length (PL) was determined for 13 red maple selections May–Sept. 1993. Bloom types were determined based on the predominate flower structures present in Spring 1993 and 1994. Leaves were collected from an existing field study installed in Mar. 1990. Trees were drip-irrigated throughout the study, thereby eliminating moisture stress concerns. Acer×freemanii `Scarsen' (LA = 131.5 cm2), `Morgan' (LA = 93.6 cm2), and `Autumn Blaze' (LA = 83.9 cm2) had the largest leaves. Acer rubrum `Autumn Flame' (LA = 40.0 cm2) had the smallest leaves. Acer rubrum `October Glory' (PL = 17.1 cm) had the longest petioles followed by `Fairview Flame' (PL = 15.4 cm). Shortest cultivar petioles were on A. rubrum `Franksred' (PL = 9.3 cm) and `Tilford' (PL = 9.3 cm). Flowers were predominately pistillate on `Autumn Flame', `Franksred', `Morgan', `October Glory', `Redskin', `Scarsen', and `Schlesingeri'. Flowers were predominately staminate on `Fairview Flame', `Karpick', `Northwood', and `Tilford'. `Autumn Blaze' did not exhibit flowers in 1993 or 1994. Some seedlings in the study were pistillate, and others were staminate.

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R.B. Hardin, D J. Eakes, C.H. Gilliam and G.J. Keever

In a full-sun Auburn, Ala., field study, 23 cultivars and 1 forma of Cornus florida L. were evaluated for growth from 1994 to 1996 and bract characteristics in Spring 1996. The selections were divided into three groups for analyses: 1) white bracted with green foliage, 2) red or pink bracted with green foliage, and 3) variegated foliage. Among the white bracted cultivars with green foliage, `Weaver' and `Welch Bay Beauty' had the greatest height and stem diameter increases, `Autumn Gold' the least. `Cloud 9' had the largest bract size. `Welch's Junior Miss' had the greatest height increase, while `Stokes' Pink' had the greatest stem diameter increase for the red or pink bracted cultivars with green foliage, and f. rubra the least. `Red Beauty' had the largest bract size. There were no differences among the variegated cultivars in height increase or bract size; however, `First Lady' had the greatest stem diameter increase.