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B.T. Scully and D.H. Wallace

A diverse set of 112 common bean (Paseolus vulgaris L.) accessions were evaluated for variation in eight traits related to yield over a 2-year period. Days to flower, days of pod fill, and days to maturity ranged from 25 to 66, 44 to 83, and 70 to 133, respectively, in upstate New York: Yield and biomass ranged from 81 to 387 and 270 to 1087 g•m-2, respectively. Harvest index ranged from 12% to 65%. The biomass (biomass/days to maturity) and seed (yield/days of pod fill) growth rates ranged from 3.2 to 9.3 and 1.2 to 9.5 g•m-2 -day-1, respectively. The economic growth rate (yield/days to maturity) extended from 0.6 to 5.7 g•m-2 -day-1. The growth rates, biomass, and days of pod fill were linearly and positively related to yield. Biomass and the growth rates explained a large amount of the variation in yield, with r 2 values between 0.71 and 0.84; days of pod fill explained the least, with r 2 = 0.09. Yield followed a curvilinear relationship with days to flower and days to maturity; yield was maximized at 48.5 days to flower and 112.2 days to maturity. Yield was a quadratic function of harvest index and maximized at 57.2%. Among these three curvilinear traits, days to flower explained 80% of the variation in yield, while days to maturity and harvest index accounted for 25% and 12.5%, respectively. The “ideal” genotype for New York was defined at these maximum values for harvest index, days to maturity, days to flower, and at 63.7 days of pod fill. Additionally, a simple equation is proposed to aid breeders in the selection of common bean accessions with strong sink strength. It is defined as “relative sink strength”: RSS = seed growth rate/biomass growth rate. Values > 1.0 implied strong sink capacity in common beans.

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K.S. Yourstone and D.H. Wallace

This study was undertaken to determine whether plastochron index (PI), a mathematical construct that quantifies shoot development, can be applied to indeterminate bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Length measurements of the middle trifoliate leaflet were the basis of the PI calculation. The expansion of each middle trifoliate leaflet at every node on each plant tested was measured over time to determine whether the growth pattern of each leaflet fits the assumptions of the PI construct. Plants from five indeterminate bean genotypes were grown in two controlled environments: A constant 29C with 12-hr of daylength, and a constant 23C with 12-hr daylength extended to 14 hr with low light intensity. Early leaflet expansion was exponential for all five genotypes in both environments. Expansion rates of successive leaflets were also similar, although a few leaflets in three of the 10 genotype-environment combinations differed in their rates of expansion. Exponential and equal rates of expansion validate the calculation of the fractional component of the PI. In both environments, all genotypes exhibited an increasing rate of leaf initiation with time, which precludes the use of a simple linear slope in estimating rate of development.

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K.S. Yourstone and D.H. Wallace

The plastochron index was used to compare the effects by daylength, mean temperature, and diurnal temperature fluctuation, on the rate of node development of five indeterminate common bean (Phaseolas vulgaris L.) genotypes grown in eight growth chamber environments. Regression analysis described temporal trends in the plastochron index. Regression curves for the various genotype—environment combinations were compared using canonical variates analysis. At a constant 17C, extending daylength from 12 to 14 or 16 hr had no effect on rate of node development. The rate of node development increased at a constant 23C when daylength was lengthened from 12 to 14 or 16 hr. The increase in rate of node development was more pronounced in genotypes with higher photoperiod sensitivity, as measured by delay of flowering. Temperature rise from 17 to 23 to 29C also increased the rate of node development, with genotypes again exhibiting differential response. Diurnal fluctuation of 6C about a mean of 23C had the same node development rate as a constant 23C.

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B. Scully, R. Provvidenti, D.E. Halseth and D.H. Wallace

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B. Scully, R. Provvidenti, D.E. Halseth and D.H. Wallace

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B. Scully, R. Provvidenti, D.E. Halseth and D.H. Wallace

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B.T. Scully, D.H. Wallace and D.R. Viands

One-hundred-twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines of diverse origin were grown in three environments in 1986 and two environments in 1987. The purpose was to estimate broad-sense heritabilities of nine yield-related traits and the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations among them. The traits and their heritabilities were seed yield (0.90), biomass (0.93), harvest index (0.92), days to maturity (0.96), days to flower (0.98), days of pod fill (0.94), biomass growth rate (biomass/days to maturity) (0.87), seed growth rate (seed yield/days of pod fill) (0.87), and economic growth rate (seed yield/days to maturity) (0.86). These high heritabilities were attributed to the broad genetic diversity and the comparatively small variances associated with the genotype × environment interactions. Genetic correlations of yield were: with biomass, 0.86; harvest index, 0.42; days to maturity, 0.40; days to flower, 0.33; days of pod fill, 0.24; biomass growth rate, 0.92; seed growth rate, 0.84; and the economic growth rate, 0.85. The concomitant phenotypic correlations were mostly equal to the genetic correlations for biomass and the three growth rates, but lower for the phonological traits (days to maturity, flower, and pod fill). Harvest index had the lowest correlations with yield. Correlations were also reported for the other 28 pairwise combinations among these nine traits. Indirect selection was explored with yield as the primary trait and the other eight as secondary traits. Estimates of relative selection efficiency (p) suggested that indirect selection was not a viable option for increasing common bean yields or identifying superior parents.

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B. Scully, R. Provvidenti, D. Benscher, D.E. Halseth, J.C. Miller Jr. and D.H. Wallace

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D.H. Wallace, Paul A. Gniffke, P.N. Masaya and R.W. Zobel

Number of days to flower (DTF) of 78 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes was measured in tropical fields at various elevations. The associated 18 mean temperatures varied between 12 and 28C. Daylength was natural 12 or 13 hours of sunlight with or without incandescent light for a total of 18 hours. A statistical analysis with additive main effects and multiplicative interaction effects (AMMI) quantified the effects on the deviation from the DTF grand mean caused by each genotype, plus those caused by each daylength and by each temperature. The more photoperiod-sensitive the genotype (factor 1), the more a longer daylength (factor 2) increased DTF and the more a higher temperature (factor 3) synergistically increased DTF. These three factors interacted to delay the node to flower. An additional control over DTF occurred as the same higher temperature (factor 3) reduced the days required to develop a node (factor 4). Thus, a higher temperature tended to decrease DTF by enhancing the rate of vegetative development, at the same time that it tended to increase DTF by enhancing the photoperiod gene activity. This four-factor interaction resulted in a U-shaped curve of DTF in response to temperature. The smallest DTF on the U-shaped response was interpreted as occurring when the simultaneous effects of temperature toward earlier and later DTF exactly cancelled. At all temperatures below this optimum for flowering, a change of temperature changed DTF predominantly by altering the days required to develop a node. At all temperatures above the optimum, a change of temperature changed DTF predominantly by altering the photoperiod-gene-caused delay of the node to flower. The optimum temperature for flowering was lowered by higher sensitivity of the genotype to photoperiod and also by longer daylength.