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  • Author or Editor: D.C. Bowman x
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Comparative evapotranspiration (ET) rates of 20 cultivars of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were measured over 7 days in a greenhouse study. Small but significant differences in ET rates existed between the cultivars grown under nonlimiting water and nutrient conditions on day 1 following mowing. Greater differences had developed after 7 days of growth, with ET ranging from a low of 10.0 mm·day-1 for `Shortstop' to a high of 13.5 mm·day-1 for `Alta'. Day 7 ET was positively correlated (r = 0.82) with clipping dry weight. Six of the tall fescue cultivars were selected for a subsequent experiment to determine the stability of relative rankings for ET over time. Although average ET varied by up to a factor of two among five dates, the rankings were nearly identical for the five dates and were consistent with the rankings in the first experiment.

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Humic acids (HA) reportedly enhance the growth of numerous crops; however, little information is available as to their effects on turfgrasses. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a commercial preparation of HA on the photosynthesis, chlorophyll concentration, rooting, and nutrient content of `Crenshaw' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Bentgrass plugs were grown hydroponically in one-quarter-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution containing HA at 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg·L-1 with measurements made weekly for 1 month. The photosynthetic rates of plants growing in 100 or 200 mg·L-1 rarely differed from that of the control, but 400 mg·L-1 significantly enhanced net photosynthesis on all four observation dates. Chlorophyll content was unaffected by HA rate on all observation dates. Root dehydrogenase (DH) activity and root mass regrowth were significantly increased by HA at 400 mg·L-1 on all dates. The 100 and 200 mg·L-1 rates increased root DH activity on two of four observation dates, but root regrowth was unaffected. At one or more of the rates used, HA increased tissue concentrations of Mg, Mn, and S and decreased those of Ca, Cu, and N, but had no influence on the concentrations of P, K, Fe, Mo, and Zn.

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Abstract

Nitrogen uptake by two N-deficient turfgrass species was characterized by measuring N depletion from a complete nutrient solution. The uptake rate of both NO 3 and NH 4 + was enhanced up to 6-fold in N-deficient perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) compared to N-sufficient controls, reaching a maximum of about 0.3 and 0.4 g N/m2 per hr for NO 3 and NH 4 + , respectively. Deficiency-enhanced uptake exceeded uptake by controls for about 72 hr following resupply of N. Nitrogen uptake was enhanced to a similar degree by N deprivation in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Mowing had no effect on NO 3 uptake by N-deficient perennial ryegrass turf, whereas mowing inhibited uptake by N-sufficient turf by ≈60%. Deficiency-enhanced uptake was found to be the result of an increased capacity for N absorption (Imax) rather than an increased affinity for N (K m). Imax values increased from 0.24 and 0.73 mg N/g dry weight per hr for N-sufficient ryegrass turf for NO 3 and NH 4 + , respectively, to 1.44 and 2.68 mg N/g dry weight per hr for N-deficient turf. K m values increased slightly, from 14 μm for both N forms for N-sufficient turf to 24 and 39 μm for NO 3 and NH 4 + , respectively, for N-deficient turf.

Open Access

sand-based rootzones are specified for golf course putting greens because they resist compaction and maintain drainage, even under heavy traffic. Although sands provide favorable physical properties, nutrient retention is generally poor and soluble nutrients like nitrogen (N) are prone to leaching. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate several inorganic soil amendments (clinoptilolite zeolite (CZ), diatomaceous earth, and two porous ceramics), which varied in cation exchange capacity (CEC), and sphagnum peat for their ability to limit N leaching. Columns (35 cm tall × 7.6 cm diameter) were filled with 30 cm of sand-amendment mixtures (8:2 v/v) and NH4NO3 was applied in solution at a N rate of 50 kg·ha-1. Leaching was initiated immediately using 2.5 pore volumes of distilled water in a continuous pulse. Leachate was collected in 0.1 pore volume aliquots and analyzed for NH4 +-N and NO3 --N. All amendments significantly decreased NH4 + leaching from 27% to 88% which was directly proportional to the CEC of the amendments. By contrast, NO3 - losses were consistently high, and no amendment effectively decreased loss compared to nonamended sand. Two amendments with the highest CECs, CZ and a porous ceramic, were selected to further study the effects of amendment incorporation rate, depth, and incubation time on N leaching. Ammonium but not NO3 - leaching was decreased with increasing amendment rate of both products. At 10% amendment (v/v) addition, only 17% to 33% of applied NH4 + leached from the amended sands. Depth of amendment incorporation significantly affected NH4 + leaching, with uniform distribution through the entire 30 cm tall column being more effective than placement within the upper 2.5 or 15 cm. Allowing the NH4NO3 to incubate for 12 or 24 hours following application generally did not affect the amount leached. These results suggest NH4 +-N leaching is inversely related to CEC of the root-zone mixture and that uniform distribution of these CEC enhancing amendments in the root-zone mixtures reduced N leaching to a greater extent than nonuniform distribution.

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Abstract

Ammonia volatilization from urea-N applied to Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis L. ‘Bensun’) was investigated using a chamber trapping procedure. Urea was spray-applied in a 0.2 cm depth at N of 5 g·m−2 with and without additional irrigation of 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 cm. Losses up to 36% of the applied N occurred when urea was applied without irrigation. Supplemental irrigation of as little as 1.0 cm reduced the loss to 3-8%, while a 4.0-cm irrigation further reduced losses to about 1%. Of the ammonia volatilized, most was lost in the first 24 hr. Maximum N loss was associated with the thatch layer, a zone having high urease activity.

Open Access

Abstract

The depletion of N applied to a moderately N-deficient Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) turf was measured using a soil sampling procedure. Nitrogen as either Ca(NO3)2 or (NH4)2SO4 was applied in solution at 5 g N/m2 and washed into the thatch and soil with an additional 0.3 cm of water. Both N forms were located primarily in the thatch and upper 1 cm of soil. The NO 3 was present in the soil solution, while the NH 4 + was mainly exchangeable (86%). The concentrations of NO 3 and NH 4 + in the soil solution were 452 and 56 μg N/ml, respectively, in the upper 1 cm of soil. Depletion of both NO 3 and NH 4 + from the turf was very rapid, with 70% to 80% of the applied N disappearing during the first 24 hr. Essentially all of the applied N was depleted by 48 hr. Results using (l5NH4)2SO4 indicate that ≈75% of the NH 4 + depletion is attributable to absorption by the turf. Similar results were obtained following fertilization of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.), and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.).

Open Access

Two adjacent rootstock trials were conducted in the east coast Indian River region of Florida with ‘Marsh’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) scion. The objective was to find rootstocks to replace sour orange (C. aurantium L.) because of losses to citrus tristeza virus, and to replace Swingle citrumelo [C. paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] because of its limited usefulness in certain poorly drained coastal sites. The trials were conducted in randomized complete blocks with 12 single-tree replicates spaced 4.6 × 6.9 m. The soils were of the Wabasso and Riviera series. The first trial consisted largely of trees on citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb. × P. trifoliata] and citrumelo rootstocks, ‘Cipo’ sweet orange (C. sinensis), and various hybrid rootstocks. The second trial involved mandarin rootstocks (C. reticulata Blanco) and sour orange and related rootstocks. Trees were grown for 7 years and yield and juice quality data were collected for the last 4 years of that period. Those rootstocks identified as the most promising, based on combinations of smaller tree size and high productivity and juice quality, were two Sunki mandarin × Swingle trifoliate orange (TF) hybrids (C-54, C-146), a Sunki mandarin × Flying Dragon TF hybrid, C-35 citrange, and a Cleopatra mandarin × Rubidoux TF hybrid (×639). The trees on these five rootstocks cropped well leading to soluble solids (SS) values of 3000 to 4000 kg/ha when they were 7-years old. The trees on C-54 and C-146 were relatively large, somewhat taller than trees on sour orange, whereas those on C-35 and the Sunki × Flying Dragon hybrid were smaller and similar to sour orange in tree height. Fruit quality among the trees on C-35 and the Sunki × Flying Dragon hybrid had relatively high SS concentration (better than sour orange), and the other three rootstocks had relatively lower solids concentration (poorer than sour orange). The trees on C-35 and the Sunki × Flying Dragon hybrid would be good candidates for higher density orchards.

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