Student-built landscape construction projects at the University of Tennessee serve to give students practical experience, provide workable solutions to landscape needs on the University of Tennessee agricultural campus, and provide ideas to visitors on landscape construction. Success has been based on a growing population of students interested in construction, a teacher well experienced in construction, a list of more than 20 completed projects, the ability to attract funding over the usual teaching budget, and the ability to gain administrative approval of projects.
D.W. Williams and P.B. Burrus
Perennial ryegrass (PR) (Lolium perenne L.) is often used as a low-mowed turf in the transition climatic zone. However, control of the fungal disease gray leaf spot (Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc.) has drastically increased the cost of PR management. Seeded bermudagrasses (SB) [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] are viable options for turfgrass management operations with limited pesticide budgets. Field trials in 2000 and 2001 tested the effects of two herbicides and several plant growth regulators (PGR) during renovation of mature PR to either of two cultivars of SB. The herbicides glyphosate and pronamide, and the PGR's trinexapac-ethyl, ethephon, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol were applied at label rates to mature stands of PR. `Mirage' and `Yukon' SB were seeded separately either 1 or 7 days after applications (DAA) of chemicals. SB establishment, first-winter survival, and turfgrass quality (TQ) were rated and compared to an untreated control. Results indicated that only applications of glyphosate resulted in acceptable renovation of PR to SB, but also resulted in significantly lower (P< 0.05) TQ during the transition. Applications of pronamide resulted in significantly less (P < 0.05) SB transition than did applications of glyphosate, but pronamide plots maintained higher TQ. None of the PRG treatements had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on SB transition. There were no consistent significant effects (P < 0.05) due to DAA among any of the chemicals evaluated. First-winter survival was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with `Yukon' than with `Mirage' in both years. We conclude that among the chemicals tested, only applications of glyphosate resulted in acceptable transition of PR to SB, but a significant reduction of TQ should be expected during the transition. Chemical names used: [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] (glyphosate); [3.5-dichloro-N-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)-benzamide] (pronamide); [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] (ethephon); [4-(cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane-cabroxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); [(±)-(R*R*)β-[(4-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol] (paclobutrazol); [α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluromethoxy)phenyl]-5-pyrmidinemethanol] (flurprimidol).
W.G. Foshee, W.D. Goff, K.M. Tilt, J.D. Williams, J.S. Bannon, and J.B. Witt
Organic mulches (leaves, pine nuggets, pine straw, grass clippings, and chipped limbs) were applied at depths of 10, 20, or 30 cm in a 3 × 3-m area around young pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees. These treatments were compared to an unmulched herbicide treatment and a common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] sod. Trunk cross-sectional areas (TCSAs) of the mulched trees were larger than those of trees in the sod or unmulched plots and increased linearly as mulch depth increased. All mulches influenced TCSA similarly. Mean TCSA for mulched trees increased 14-fold compared to an increase of 8-fold for the unmulched trees and the sod in this 3-year study. Thus, common yard-waste mulches can be used effectively to increase growth of young pecan trees.
S Uknes, T. Delaney, B. Vernooij, L. Friedrich, S. Williams, D. Chandler, K. Weymann, H. Kessmann, D. Alexander, E. Ward, and Ryals J. Ciba
Systemic acquired resistance is a broad spectrum inducible defense response that is associated with the expression of a set of genes (SAR genes). Expression of one of these genes (PR-1a from tobacco) in transgenic tobacco confers increased tolerance to two oomycete pathogens.
A direct role for salicylic acid (SA) in signaling SAR has been established in tobacco by analysis of transgenic tobacco expressing salicylate hydroxylase (SAH, an enzyme that inactivates SA by conversion to catechol). Tobacco plants that express SAH are blocked in the accumulation of SA and the development of SAR when responding lo TMV. Furthermore, both Arabidopsis and tobacco expressing SAH have altered pathogen induced lesion morphology, exemplified by larger spreading lesions.
Putative mutants in SAR gene expression were isolated by screening M2 Arabidopsis plants for altered expression of PR-1 and PR-2 or for sensitivity to pathogen infection following INA treatment. The putative mutants all into two major classes,constitutive (cim, constitutive immunity) and non-inducible (nim, non-inducible immunity). Several cim mutants exhibits a disease lesion phenotype in the absence of pathogen.