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- Author or Editor: D.A. Wardle x
Paclobutrazol (PB) soil drenches applied at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg·liter-1 to potted Vitis vinifera L. `Pinot noir' vines inhibited extension growth of shoots on untopped vines and growth of lateral shoots on topped vines. Internode length, leaf area, and cane maturity were also reduced by the PB soil drenches. Foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3) appeared to remove the effects of PB on the length of some internodes. Chemical name used: β[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Paclobutrazol (PB) was sprayed on hedged `Riesling' (Vitis vinifera L.) vines at one of five concentrations (0, 1000, 2000, 3000, or 4000 mg·liter-1) as single annual applications over 3 years (1987-89). Observations were made on growth, yield, and fruit composition during the years of application and 1 year thereafter (1990) to test carryover effects. PB had no effect on vine vigor, expressed as weight of cane prunings, during the three application years, but reduced vine vigor linearly with concentration in 1990. Yield was reduced by PB in the first 2 years of the trial, while in one season cluster weight and berries per cluster were also reduced. °Brix was increased by PB during all 3 years of application; titratable acidity was reduced and pH increased in the first year of application. PB sprays significantly reduced lateral shoot length, mean leaf size on both main and lateral shoots, and total leaf area on main and lateral shoots. Winter injury to buds, cordons, and trunks was also reduced with increasing PB level. Residues of PB in fruit in the first year of application ranged from 9 μg·kg-1 at the 0-m·gliter-1 level to 638 μg·kg-1 at the 4000-mg·liter-1 level. PB shows promise as a viticultural tool for advancement of fruit maturity, with possible additional benefits such as improved vine winter hardiness. Chemical name used β -[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α -dimethylethyl)-1-H-1,2,4-triazole-l-ethanol (paclobutrazol, PB).
`Riesling' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were subjected for 4 years (1987-90) to three shoot densities (16, 26, and 36 shoots/m of row) combined with three crop-thinning levels (1, 1.5, and 2 clusters/shoot) in a factorialized treatment arrangement. Weight of cane prunings per vine (vine size) decreased linearly with increasing shoot density and clusters per shoot. Cane periderm formation (in terms of percent canes per vine with >10 ripened internodes) was inhibited by increased shoot density, while vine winter injury (primarily bud and cordon) increased slightly in a linear fashion with increasing clusters per shoot. Canopy density and leaf area data suggested that fruit clusters were most exposed to sunlight at a shoot density of 26 shoots/m of row due to reduced lateral shoot growth and a trend toward slightly smaller leaves. Yield, clusters per vine, and crop load (yield per kilogram of cane prunings) increased with increasing shoot density and clusters per shoot, while other yield components (cluster weight, berries per cluster, and berry weight) decreased. Soluble solids and pH of berries and juices decreased with increasing shoot density and clusters per shoot, but titratable acidity was not substantially affected. Free volatile terpenes increased in berries and juices in 1989 with increasing shoot density, as did potentially volatile terpenes in 1990. Shoot densities of 16 to 26 shoots/m of row are recommended for low to moderately vigorous `Riesling' vines to achieve economically acceptable yields and high winegrape quality simultaneously.
`Riesling' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were subjected for 4 seasons (1987-90) to three shoot densities (16, 26, and 36 shoots/m of row) combined with three crop-thinning levels (1, 1.5, and 2 clusters per shoot) in a factorial design. Wines were made from all treatment combinations in 1989. Aroma compounds such as trans-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, and linalool oxides 1 and 2 in many cases decreased in nonaged and aged wines by increasing shoot density and clusters per shoot, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol increased. Aging wines increased concentrations of cis-3-hexen-1-ol, citronellol, α-terpineol, and the linalool oxides, while linalool decreased. Tasters identified aged wines from the lowest shoot densities and clusters per shoot as having the most ripe-fruit flavor and the least green-fruit flavor and perceived acidity. Flavor descriptors were correlated with linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and linalool oxide 1. Shoot densities of 20 to 25 shoots/m of row are recommended for low to moderately vigorous `Riesling' vines to achieve economically acceptable yields and high wine quality simultaneously.
`Okanagan Riesling' (Vitis spp. parentage unknown) vine trunks treated in 1984 with three levels of NM (0, 10,000, and 20,000 mg·liter-1) and three levels of paclobutrazol (PB; 0, 250, and 500 mg·liter-1, in white latex paint were subjected to a reapplication in June 1987 at the same rates of NAA and at 0, 1000, and 2000 mg PB/liter. Linear reductions in suckers per vine were observed with increasing NAA concentration but not PB. Yield and clusters per vine were reduced by PB in the season following retreatment (1988), while berry weight was increased by NAA in 1987. Titratable acidity was increased by NAA in 1988, and pH was highest that season with PB at 1000 mg·liter-1 . No PB was detected in fruit tissue in 1987, but NAA levels of 2.4 and 2.0 μg·kg-1 were detected in clusters sampled from the 10,000- and 20,000-mg·liter -1 treatments, respectively. Chemical names used: l-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); β-1[(4-chlorophenyl)methy]-α-1 (l,l-dimethylethyl)-1H-l,2,4-triazole-l-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
One of three levels (O, 1, 10 mg·liter-1) of the cytokinin-active substituted phenylurea compound CPPU was applied with or without 100 mg GA/liter to developing clusters of `Sovereign Coronation' and Summerland Selection 495 grapes (Vitis spp.). In a similar experiment, one of three levels (0, 1, 10 mg·liter-) of either CPPU or the related compound thidiazuron was applied to `Simone' and Summerland Selection 535. Both phenylurea chemicals tended to linearly increase cluster weight and berry weight while reducing degrees Brix, pH, and anthocyanins and increasing titratable acidity. A subsequent trial with O, 4, and 8 mg thidiazuron/liter on all four varieties yielded similar results. GA had no individual or synergistic effects. Due to the very low concentrations required, CPPU and thidiazuron show great promise as chemical tools for the increase of berry weight in seedless table grapes. Chemical names used: N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl) -N'-phenylurea (CPPU); N1-phenyl-N'-l,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (thidiazuron);