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A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of producing and processing immature cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) green pods by using the same technology used for green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The cowpea cultivar Bettersnap developed for green pod production and the green bean cultivars Benton and OSU-5402 were produced under the same cultural conditions. `Bettersnap' yielded less than 0.5 ton/ha, while `Benton' and `OSU-5402' produced about 2.5 ton/ha in once-over simulated mechanical harvest. `Bettersnap' had long vines and dense foliage, which resulted in plants with more width and less erectness than `Benton', the predominant green bean cultivar. Uneven pod setting and long pods (23.8 cm) in `Bettersnap' constitute potential problem for mechanical harvest. Canned cowpea pods of sieves 2 and 3 had darker green color, smaller seeds, and higher shear value, fiber content, and sloughing than green bean pods. Our study indicates that there is a need to develop cultivars with high yield potential and concentrated pod setting adapted to mechanical harvest with pods containing less fiber and less tendency to sloughing.

Free access

Abstract

In the article “AU-Jubilant' and ‘AU–Producer’ Watermelons“ by J.D. Norton, R.D. Cosper, D.A. Smith, and K.S. Rymal (HortScience 21:1460–1461, Dec. 1986), the following corrections should be noted: The legends to Figs. 3 and 4 were reversed. The legend to Fig. 3 should read “Fruit of ‘AUProducer’ watermelon.”; the legend to Fig. 4 should read “Fruit of ‘AU–Jubilant’ watermelon.” In the legend to Fig. 1, the word should be “Pedigree”. In the literature citations, ref. 1 should read J. Amer. Soc. Hort Sci. instead of HortScience, and, in ref. 7, the volume number should read 105 instead of 195.

Open Access

Abstract

‘AUrora’ is a multiple disease resistant muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivar developed by the Dept. of Horticulture, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn Univ., adapted to growing conditions in the Southeastern United States. ‘AUrora’ has resistance to downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis), powdery mildew, (Spherotheca fuliginea), and gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae). ‘AUrora’ is especially suited for home, local and commercial markets where “jumbo” size fruit is preferred.

Open Access

Abstract

Prevalence of diseases, particularly anthracnose, fusarium wilt, and gummy stem blight, is a major factor limiting production of watermelons in the southern United States. Although satisfactory control of anthracnose and gummy stem blight may be accomplished with the proper application of organic fungicides during normal weather conditions, chemical control is not effective during periods of high humidity and rainfall. Furthermore, the 3 leading cultivars, Charleston Gray, Jubilee, and Crimson Sweet, are not resistant to either anthracnose or gummy stem blight (1,2, 7).

Open Access

Abstract

Environmental concerns and disadvantages of synthetic insecticides have stimulated interest in natural chemicals derived from plants for insect control. Extracts from seeds of the neem tree (Azidirachta indica A. Juss) have attracted attention as an insecticide not only because of its broad spectrum action, but also because it has demonstrated uncommon safety to man and warm-blooded animals and the environment (Henkes, 1986). Furthermore, neem extract has been reported to act systemically to effectively control serpentine leafminer (Liromyza trifolii Burgess), a serious pest on ornamentals and vegetables due mainly to pesticide resistance (Larew et al., 1984; Lindquist et al., 1986; Stein and Parrella, 1985; Webb et al., 1983). Larew et al. (1984) demonstrated that neem soil drenches provided systemic control of L. trifolii for up to 3 weeks. Lindquist et al. (1986) investigated the use of neem insecticide (Margosan-O) as a preshipping crop treatment by soaking bare root cuttings in neem solutions. Their 2- to 4-hr soaks (3.0% Margosan-O) effectively controlled leafminers for 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if a simple in-transit application method could provide control of serpentine leafminers on chrysanthemum.

Open Access

Polyphenolic compounds (particularly anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids) from some fruits and vegetables have significant and diverse impacts on human health preservation. While it's well recognized that some of the polyphenolics in foods we consume have a protective and proactive role against disease, very little has been known about how they accomplish this feat. A range of bioassays (in vitro and in laboratory animals) were adapted to examine compounds extracted from berry fruits, and separated into distinct fractions by vacuum chromatography. The proanthocyanidin class of compounds, as well as mixtures of proanthocyanidins and other flavonoids, were significantly bioactive against both the promotion and initiation stages of chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Potent antioxidant activity was not confined to particular fractions, but was present in several classes of compounds. Identification and characterization of the bioflavonoids is complicated both by apparent interactions between related compounds that occur together within horticultural fruits, and interferences from some substances (pectins and complex sugars) that depress observed response in bioactivity assays.

Free access

Vitalization is a process whereby senescence is retarded and refrigerated storage can be extended. The process involves hyperhydration of plant materials with selected aqueous solution, thereby flooding interstitial spaces and vascular tissues. Microscopic examination revealed increased size of interstitial spaces and expansion and increased roundness to cells. No disruption of tissues was detected. Turgidity was measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine equipped with a Kramer Shear Cell. Color was measured with a Minolta color difference meter. Leaves were evaluated for color and turgidity changes during storage. Vitalized leaves did not change significantly in color or turgidity during a 10-week storage period. Untreated leaves lost turgidity and yellowed in storage.

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Dry edible beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) represent an inexpensive way to incorporate protein into the diet as a food ingredient, but beans contain unpleasant flavors and several anti-nutritional factors that limit their use without first processing with long heat treatments. `Great Northern' bean flour was processed using either static or specially designed dynamic (continuous) processing methods. The dynamic process treated flour slurries at temperatures up to 124°for 20 sec. The slurries were quick-frozen and freeze-dried after frozen storage periods of 0, 8, 24, 120, or 504 hr. The flours were analyzed for sensory properties, emulsifying activity, foaming properties, and trypsin inhibition. The heat treatments improved sensory attributes of the flour. The foam capacity and foam stability decreased in heat-treated flours. Trypsin inhibitor activity was at a minimum level immediately following thermal processing, but increased with time in frozen storage prior to drying. Minimal thermal processes cannot be relied upon to inactivate trypsin inhibitors.

Free access

Many plants can produce bioactive chemicals with medicinal or health benefits, which has stimulated a whole new research effort aimed at extracting & improving natural phytochemicals. Begonia is a rich source of biologically-active phytochemicals and an excellent donor for natural anthocyanin pigments. High levels of triterpene compounds and a host of potentially-useful flavonoids have been isolated from Begonia sp., which may account for its frequent use as a medicinal plant remedy in a diverse array of cultures worldwide. Deliberate shifting of the physical and chemical microenvironments can have a significant effect on anthocyanins and precursors produced in vitro. This realization offers the potential to thoroughly screen and study valuable phytochemicals from Begonia. Begonia genotypes from 3 species were screened to identify callus induction techniques. Contamination inherent in the vascular system of one genotype, along with spontaneous organogenesis, were found to be recurrent problems. These were partially alleviated by light and growth regulator treatments. Studies comparing callus and in vitro vegetative tissues as resources for phytochemical extraction are scheduled.

Free access

Abstract

Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica Batsch) and apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) leached with water for 6 hours were less cold-hardy than nonleached buds. Buds which were leached with water for 16 hours and then dried for 0 to 16 hours were equally damaged by freezing; however, their moisture content decreased as drying time increased. Cold-hardiness was reduced rapidly during the first 3 hours of leaching, then loss of hardiness slowed and remained nearly constant through up to 48 hours of leaching. Loss of hardiness appears to be closely associated with leaching of water-soluble compounds from the flower bud, a loss which reduces the bud's ability to supercool.

Open Access