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  • Author or Editor: D. W. Burke x
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Abstract

Seven cultivars representing 5 principal types of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) produced commercially in the state of Washington were analyzed chemically for content of moisture, fat, ash, total protein, calcium, iron, potassium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and amino acids when raw or when freeze-dried following cooking. Samples of cooked beans were subjected to sensory evaluation and shear-force measurement. Protein quality was evaluated using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. Results are being used for comparison with values for new cultivars produced later in the breeding program. The 7 cultivars contained significant percentages of the United States Recommended Daily Allowances (US-RDA) for iron, calcium, potassium, thiamin, and riboflavin. The nutritional quality of their protein was half to two-thirds that of casein. All cultivars were judged to be acceptable in flavor and texture. ‘Pinto UI-114’ was outstanding for both nutritional content and sensory quality.

Open Access

Abstract

Viability of pollen grains of isogenic sibling bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) selections of known tolerance of sensitivity to high temperatures (HT), as previously determined by pod retention and seed yield, was compared to that of a common parent bean selection and a cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivar. Exposure of newly opened flowers to temperatures of 35° or 41°C reduced the viability of pollen grains in all bean selections. Pollen of all sibling selections was less affected by HT than pollen of their common parent suggesting transgressive segregation of factors for HT tolerance. At 41°, most pollen grains were destroyed in the parent bean selection and the 2 HT-sensitive siblings, whereas 44% to 55% of the pollen grains appeared to be viable in the 2 HT-tolerant siblings. Pollen viability of the HT-tolerant cowpea cultivar was not reduced by temperatures to 41°. Pollen staining indicated an interrelationship between pollen viability and tolerance to HT stress among the bean selections. The technique described has the potential for rapid selection of HT-tolerant genotypes in hybrid populations.

Open Access

Abstract

Leaves of cold-acclimated lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.], grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.), orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck], and mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.) trees ranged in cold hardiness from −4 to −11°C. No significant differences in water content (g H2O/g dry weight) or melting point depression were observed. Plots of liquid water content during freezing (g H2O/g dry weight) vs. temperature were similar for the 4 citrus species. The tissues apparently deviated from ideal freezing behavior because less ice was formed. The reduced ice formation could not be accounted for by osmotic effects. Negative pressure potential developed during freezing is hypothesized to play a role in tissue water potential in frozen systems. It was concluded that hardier Citrus leaves survive freezing of a larger fraction of their tissue water.

Open Access

Abstract

Two bean cultivars and one breeding selection with different pod-retention characteristics were grown at mean soil moisture tension (MSMT) of 0.05 and 0.1 MPa in 2 separate plantings. In the 5 May planting, flower buds developed during the 1st 3½ weeks of flowering, were dated and counted, and those developing mature pods were identified. Sixty-five percent to 90% of all pods that reached full maturity were from floral buds that reached anthesis during the 1st 2 weeks of flowering. The percentage of pods reaching maturity varied among cultivars. About 40% of the floral buds that developed on the determinate bean selection were retained to full pod maturity. Only 20% to 25% of the floral buds developed on each of the indeterminate cultivars were retained to full pod maturity. An increase in the MSMT from 0.05 to 0.1 MPa in the 23 June planting reduced the number of pods and seeds/plant and total seed weight/plant by 20% to 40%, but the number of seeds/pod and weight/seed was not influenced by MSMT or by number of pods produced on either of the dry bean cultivars or the breeding selection.

Open Access

Abstract

Chemicals often associated with pollen function in vitro were applied under field conditions to foliage of determinate, semi-determinate, and indeterminate beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to evaluate pod and seed yield response. Sprays of calcium nitrate, boric acid, ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid, detergent “Micro”, and different sugars altered pod retention and seed yield, but response varied with bean source.

Open Access