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Open access

D. Stuart Tustin, Peter M. Hirst, and Ian J. Warrington

Abstract

Fruiting laterals were tagged within the inner and outer canopy zones of the basal, mid, and upper tiers of dormant, mature central-leader ‘Granny Smith’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees and were classified into pendant (>120°), horizontal (30°-120°), and vertical (0°-30°) types. Transmission of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to spur sites on tagged laterals was measured in mid-season and fruits from these sites were harvested at commercial maturity for assessment of fresh weight, soluble solids concentration (SSC), starch pattern index, and background color. Pendant laterals produced fewer, smaller, and greener fruit per flowering spur than horizontal or vertical laterals. Fruit fresh weight and soluble solids concentration increased with increasing height in the canopy and were higher in the outer compared with the inner horizontal canopy position. Background color followed a trend opposite to that of fresh weight and soluble solids concentration, with fruit from the lower inner canopy regions being greenest. Both fresh weight and SSC showed highly positive correlations with the percentage transmission of PPF. Fruit set showed a positive correlation with PPF, although the relationship was weaker than that for fresh weight or SSC. PPF penetration was lower to pendant laterals than to horizontal and vertical laterals and declined from upper to lower and from outer to inner canopy positions. Pendant fruiting laterals received < 15% of PPF, irrespective of location within the canopy.

Free access

Stephen C. Myers, Amy T. Savelle, D. Stuart Tustin, and Ross E. Byers

Partial thinning of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during bloom to 50% of the necessary level by hand, and followed by adjustment hand thinning at 42 days after full bloom (DAFB) was compared to a similar degree of thinning accomplished entirely at 42 DAFB by hand. Partial flower thinning altered the distribution of fruit by diameter, increasing the percentage of large diameter (≥62.0 mm) fruit harvested compared to unthinned trees or trees thinned entirely at 42 DAFB. Although shoot number per limb was not altered by thinning time, the distribution of shoots by length was affected, increasing the percentage of long shoots (≥20.0 cm). Compared to unthinned trees and trees thinned at 42 DAFB, partial flower thinning increased the subsequent development of flower buds per shoot and the number of flower buds per node. Number of flower buds on the proximal five nodes of shoots 15.0-30.0 cm in length was increased, although not on shoots 5.0-7.0 cm in length. Additional trials established that airblast spray application of AMADS was effective in achieving a similar level of thinning as that accomplished by partial flower thinning by hand in previous experiments. The degree of flower removal exhibited a linear response to chemical concentration. Fruit diameter on chemically flower-thinned trees was greater at adjustment thinning time, when compared to trees thinned by hand at 42 DAFB only. Distribution of fruit at harvest indicated a larger percentage of fruit >65.0 mm in trees which received partial flower thinning in comparison to trees thinned at 42 DAFB only. As a result, overall crop value was increased, based on the commercial processing peach price structure at the time of harvest. Chemical name used: 1-aminomethanamide dihydrogen tetraoxosulfate (AMADS)