Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: D. S. Farnham x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

A 200 ppm solution of Physan-20 [Active ingredients: n-alkyl (60% C14, 30% C16, 5% C12, 5% C18) dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides, 10%; n-alkyl (68% C12, 32% C14) dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides, 10%; inert ingredients, 80%.] was as effective in opening buds of ‘Perfecta’ gypsophila as was a 25 ppm silver nitrate solution when combined with sucrose. Sucrose (10%) was more effective in a short time period than 5% in combination with Physan-20. The minimum time in the solution for producing high quality blooms was 4 days. Physan-20, a quaternary ammonium compound, effectively opened gypsophila buds in tap water moderately high in salts, bicarbonates and nitrates. Physan-20 offers an effective alternate to silver nitrate for opening gypsophila without deionized water.

Open Access

Abstract

Excessive temperatures recorded within flower boxes on transcontinental refrigerated trucks were avoided by using an integrated system of preshipment cooling with forced-air, standardized containers and appropriate stacking pattern. The longevity and quality of flowers shipped from California to Florida by refrigerated trucks were comparable to or better than that of air-shipped flowers. Preshipment conditioning treatments did not improve flower longevity of shipped roses, carnations or gladioli. Preconditioning chrysanthemum stems in AgNo3 solution eliminated the need to recut stems after shipment. Carnations and gladioli handled dry lasted as long as conditioned flowers. Floral preservative used on roses and carnations after shipping had a more positive affect on longevity than any other handling treatment.

Open Access

Abstract

The longevity and quality of flowers experimentally shipped from California to Maryland by refrigerated trucks for 4–5 days were comparable with or better than simulated air-shipped flowers when properly handled. Flowers shipped by air are usually not refrigerated in transit. Best results with ‘White Sim’ carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), ‘Albatross’ standard chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) and ‘Cara Mia’ roses (Rosa hybrida L.) were obtained when flowers were pretreated after harvest with a chemical solution for 16 hours, precooled prior to shipment and shipped in insulated boxes. Preshipment pulsing of carnations and chrysanthemums increased longevity and bloom diameter. Pulsing of ‘Cara Mia’ roses extended longevity and prevented “bent neck.” Chrysanthemums and roses benefited from ice in the box even with good refrigeration but carnations did not. Carnations and chrysanthemums cut at a tight bud stage suffered much less than open blooms from heat stress conditions during handling of flowers.

Open Access

Abstract

Cut carnation flowers shipped from California by air occasionally arrive at eastern markets in a senescent condition with losses greater in the warm autumn months. CO2 and C2H4 production by the flowers has a pattern similar to that of climacteric-class fruits, with senescence correlated with a rise in release of the gases.

Cut carnation flowers show an enormous increase in respiratory heat with increasing temperature: 89 BTU/ton/hour at 0°C versus 14,718 at 50°C. In C2H4-free air, the flowers tolerate elevated temperatures but their vase life is reduced. Their sensitivity to C2H4 increases dramatically with increasing temperature, with the threshold concentration partially depending on prior stresses on the flowers.

Flowers in containers exposed to direct sunlight developed temperatures as high as 49.5°C. Air temperatures inside containers shipped via jet aircraft were as high as 35°C. The C2H4 concentrations in the containers may reach 10.5 ppm.

The remarkable resistance of cut carnation flowers to mechanical injury, combined with their low metabolic rates at low temperatures, makes refrigerated surface shipments feasible and perhaps economically desirable. Their resistance to injury seems related to their light weight, the damping action of the petals, and the lack of phenolase or readily oxidizable phenolic compounds in the petals.

Open Access