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  • Author or Editor: D. M. Kopec x
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Golf course superintendents in the southwestern United States (Tucson, Ariz.; Phoenix, Ariz.; Las Vegas, Nev.; Orange County, Calif.) were surveyed to assess attitudes toward using reuse water for irrigation. Eighty-nine golf course personnel returned the survey, with 28% indicating that they irrigate with municipal water, 36% with well water, and 27% with reuse water. The reason for switching to reuse water varied by state, with 40% of respondents switching in Arizona because of mandates, 47% switching in Nevada because of cost incentives, and 47% switching in California because it was considered a more reliable source of water. Less than 20% of the respondents rated the use of reuse water on golf courses and parks to have a negative impact on cost, the environment and health. However, respondents indicated that using reuse water does have a negative impact on the operations of the golf course, with pond maintenance and irrigation maintenance having the highest negative impact (∼80%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that among those who indicated that using reuse water would have a negative impact on golf course management, a higher percentage were individuals who had a greater number of years of experience irrigating with reuse water (P = 0.01) and individuals who have taken classes on how to use reuse water (P = 0.05). Respondents who currently irrigate with reuse water indicated they had changed a wide range of landscape and turfgrass management practices as a result of using reuse water. Based on the results of this survey, it was concluded that golf course personnel in the southwestern U.S. do not oppose the transition to reuse water for irrigation. However, it was also clear they recognize using such water negatively impacts their golf courses' operations.

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Abstract

Mini-lysimetry was used for evapotranspiration (ET) assessment of six tall fescue cultivars (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under field conditions. Crop coefficients (Kc) and fraction of available soil water were calculated. Cultivars differed in ET by as much as 18%. Turf-types had lower ET than forage-types, with ET rates of 6.6 and 7.2 mm·day–1, respectively. ‘Kenhy’ and ‘Kentucky 31’ had the highest and ‘Rebel’ and ‘Mustang’ had the lowest total ET for 16 days measured during Summer 1984. Cultivars differed in extraction of available soil water and capacity to meet ET demand. Cultivars differed in wilting tendency. ‘Mustang’ and ‘Rebel’ had low ET, but wilted early. ‘Adventure’ had a relatively high ET, but did not show signs of wilt.

Open Access

Abstract

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.) cultivars differed in thatching tendency 3 years after establishment. Thatch accumulation was greater in turf-types than forage-types. Thatch accumulation was positively correlated to verdure (r = 0.92) and total cell wall (TCW) content per square meter (r = 0.90) of cultivars.

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Photosynthesis was reduced by 85% to 90% in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Derby) following a one-day chilling exposure at 8C day (450 μmol·s-1·m-2 PPF) and 5C night. Seven days of recovery at 22/17C day/night were required for full recovery of photosynthesis. More than 75% of the limitation in photosynthesis following chilling was due to non-stomatal factors, and reduced initial slopes of CO2 assimilation vs. intercellular CO, indicate that photosynthetic capacity was reduced for 5 days following chilling. Carbon dioxide assimilation at saturating intercellular CO2 (>500 μmol·mol-l) was also reduced by chilling, indicating again that stomatal limitations were a minor contributor to the photosynthetic reduction observed under ambient CO2.

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