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  • Author or Editor: D. K. Salunkhe x
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Abstract

Mechanical injuries of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) such as brushing, cutting, dropping, puncturing, and hammering greatly stimulated glycoalkaloid synthesis in both peel and flesh of tubers. The extent of glycoalkaloid formation depended on cultivar, type of mechanical injury, storage temperature, and duration of storage. High temperature storage stimulated more glycoalkaloid formation than that of low temperature. Most of the injury-stimulated glycoalkaloid formation occurred within 15 days after treatments. Mechanical injury caused by cutting of tubers resulted in the highest contents of glycoalkaloids both in flesh and peel.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Subatmospheric pressure (hypobaric) treatments increased the storage life of apricots by 15 to 37 days, peaches by 7 to 27 days, sweet cherries by 16 to 33 days, pears by 1.5 to 4.5 months, and apples by 2.5 to 3.5 months. In general, chlorophyll and starch degradation, losses of sugars and titratable acidity, and formation of carotenoids were delayed by the subatmospheric pressure treatments.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

A treatment of potato tubers (Solarium tuberosum L.) at 22°C with corn oil, peanut oil, olive oil, vegetable oil, or mineral oil significantly and effectively inhibited chlorophyll and solanine formation. A concn of 1/8 corn oil and 7/8 acetone was the minimum effective diluted oil treatment.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Oil dipping of potato tubers at 22°C inhibited solanine and chlorophyll formation by 92-97% and 93-100%, respectively. Oil dipping at 60°, 100°, and 160°C completely inhibited chlorophyll and solanine formation. The tuber sprouting of cvs. Russet Burbank, White Rose, and Red Pontiac was com pletely inhibited by oil dipping at all temperatures. There were no significant differences in the respiration of the peel and flesh of treated and control tubers.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Low O2 atmospheres inhibited ripening and thus increased the storage life at 12.78°C (55°F) of tomato fruits. At 10% O2 and 90% N2, the storage life was 62 days; at 3% O2 and 97% N2, 76 days. The maximum life of tomato fruits in this study was 87 days (1% O2 and 99% N2). Low O2 atmospheres inhibited degradation of chlorophyll and starch, and syntheses of lycopene, β-carotene, and soluble sugars of tomato fruits.

Open Access

Abstract

Plants grown in dichloropropene (a soil fumigant) treated soil have significantly higher than usual carotenoid levels. Treatments with dichloropropenes, 3-chloroallyl alcohol, 3-chloropropionic acid, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, 3-chloro-l-propanol and malonic acid decreased the incorporation of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaric acid and mevalonic acid into carotenoids of etiolated maize. Lipoxidase in tomato was inhibited by much lower concentrations of these compounds than were required to inhibit the incorporation of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaric acid or mevalonic acid. This difference could account for the eventual increase in the total carotenoids in the plant.

Open Access

Abstract

Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with the nonparasitic disorders of hollow heart and blackheart contained significantly more glycoalkaloids in the cortical region than normal tubers in 3 cultivars. The glycoalkaloid content of tuber tissue was related to the severity of the disorders.

Open Access

Abstract

Sweet cherries (cultivar—‘Lambert’) were kept in a controlled atmosphere (CA) consisting of 10.5 per cent CO2 and 2.5 per cent O2 at 1°C. The sample fruits were taken periodically during the treatment and also after termination of the CA treatment. The concentration of amino acids, tyrosine and α-amino butyric acid; organic acid, malic acid; and total sugars were determined on an ethanolic extract of the fruit pulp. The respiratory CO2 was measured for separate lots of 1.2 to 1.5 kg of fruit.

Fruit stored at higher CO2 concentration had a lower amount of tyrosine, higher amounts of α-amino butyric and malic acids than in fruits stored in the conventional refrigerator at 1°C. The respiratory rate was inhibited, and there was no significant effect on total sugar content.

Open Access

Abstract

Investigations were carried out to isolate, identify, and characterize major volatile components of tomato fruit. Simultaneously, the confirmation was extended to the reported tomato volatiles. The volatile extracts from field and artificially-ripe fruits were compared qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The changes occurring in the volatile components of the fruit at the onset of senescence also were delineated.

A typical chromatogram from field ripe tomatoes contained 60 peaks. The functional group properties of individual peaks were derived by chemical analysis and approximate concentrations of individual groups were calculated. Among alcohols and carbonyls, 3-pen tanol, 1-nonanal, 1-decanal, and 1-dodecanal, and among esters, propyl acetate, geranyl acetate, and citronellyl butyrate were tentatively identified as volatile compounds of tomato fruit. Linalyl acetate, citronellyl butyrate, and geranyl butyrate were identified for the first time as the components of tomato volatiles.

The concentrations of short-chain (C4-C6) compounds were higher in the artificially ripe fruits while the long-chain (C9-C12) carbonyls and the terpene esters were predominant in the field ripe fruits. These differences were discussed. It was indicated that major contributions of the long-chain carbonyls and the terpene esters are essential for ripe tomato aroma. An attempt has been made to theorize the mechanisms of the biogenesis of these compounds. During senescence the amounts of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acetates, and propionates generally decreased. However, the concentrations of diacetyl and butyric acid esters increased.

Open Access

Abstract

The firmness, pericarp color, total pectins, total sugars, free reducing sugars, pH, titratable acidity, organic acids, amino acids, and tannins were analyzed in apricots, Prunus armeniaca L. cvs. Moorpark and Large Early Montgamet and in peaches, Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta. Fruit was stored under varying CO2 concentrations and 5.0% 02. Results of these treatments were compared to those obtained with conventional refrigerated storage fruit.

The data indicated that firmness, total pectins, titratable acidity, total sugars, and tannins decreased with duration of storage time. However, they usually decreased at a slower rate in CA-stored fruit than in refrigerator-stored fruit. Color, pH, and free reducing sugars increased with storage time, but the organic and amino acids content varied erratically with the treatment and length of storage time. The organic acids were generally depleted as storage was extended. Succinic acid occurred only under elevated CO2 concns. increasing the CO2 accelerated accumulation of succinic acid and the depletion of malic acid. Increased CO2 caused alanine to accumulate and aspartic acid to decrease.

Apricot fruit appeared to benefit most when stored in 2.5% CO2. Under this CO2 cone, fruit did not develop detrimental effects as rapidly as at other concns. of CO2 tested. Peach fruit did not appear to be satisfactorily stored under the conditions of this experiment.

Open Access