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Abstract

Three blueberry progenies from crosses of large-fruited X large-fruited parents were significantly larger in fruit size than 3 progenies from crosses of large-fruited X small-fruited parents. Mean fruit sizes of the 3 large-fruited X small-fruited populations were equal to the fruit size of the smaller fruited parents in each cross, indicating that small fruit size is a dominant character. Large fruit size is not linked with low yield.

Open Access
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Abstract

Irregular germination and delayed emergence of blueberry, strawberry, blackberry and raspberry seedlings have been noted by various investigators. Seed treatments such as afterripening (1) and acid scarification of strawberry seed (2) improved rapidity of germination, but neither treatment fully overcame the delay in seed germination. In a study with blueberry seed, after-ripening did not improve germination (2). Sporadic germination and delayed emergence of seedlings complicates a breeding program when uniform size of seedlings is desired.

Open Access
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Abstract

In a study of breeding of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) for resistance to red stele root rot caused by Phytophthora fragariae Hickman, two different composites of races of the fungus were used to screen seedlings, one with and one without race A-5. In the absence of race A-5, all resistant parents produced between 28.6 to 72.0% resistant seedlings depending upon parental combinations. When race A-5 was included in the composite, two breeding selections that were derived from Fragaria chiloensis Yaquina A clone transmitted more resistance to their seedlings than three other parents in a diallel comparison. Mean squares and variance components were higher for general than for specific combining ability. Resistance is partially dominant for the races involved in this study.

Open Access
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Abstract

Inheritance of albino seedling was studied in progenies of 3 tetraploid cultivated highbush blueberry clones. This mutant character was found to be controlled by a recessive gene at a single locus. All 3 parental clones appeared to be duplex (AAaa) for the marker gene and upon crossing and selfing segregated with ratios that are most likely to occur with tetrasomic inheritance. They segregated approximately 43 normal : 1 albino which is a significant deviation from the expected 35:1 ratio. This deviation is probably due to nonrandom pairing at meiosis of the 4 homologous chromosomes bearing the marker gene.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

In a germination test with strawberry seed of different ages stored at 40°F, 23-year-old seed germinated as well as 1-year-old seed. Germination was relatively high for all of the seed lots, despite differences in age.

Open Access

Abstract

The effects of temperatures, before digging and during storage, on the physical condition of cold-stored strawberry plants and their field response are given. Results for 3 of 4 varieties tested under Maryland conditions indicate that most strawberry plants dug in the fall can be stored successfully for 5 months at 30° F. Early digging of non-dormant plants is a feasible method of avoiding winter injury without causing loss of salable plants. Removing leaves from certain varieties before storage had no detrimental effect and probably should be done to avoid the development of decay in storage.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananarsa Duch.) plants treated with methyl 1-(butylcar bam oyl) 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (benomyl) before removal from the field were in better condition after 7 months of storage, survived better in the field after planting, and produced higher yields than those not treated with fungicide. Fungicide application dates ranged over 6 weeks in the fall. The time of application made no significant difference in the condition of the plants during storage, however, fruit yield data in some cultivars indicated that late treatment was more beneficial than early treatment for maintaining overall plant quality. Treated plants stored at 1°C for 7 months were of very good quality, while those at 3° were mediocre to poor. Poor quality and high mortality characterized all nontreated plants regardless of storage temperature.

Open Access

Abstract

A clone of the diploid blueberry species Vaccinium atrococcum Heller, was previously found to be highly resistant to the fungus tetraploid highbusy blueberry. The tetraploid V. atrococcum was highly root-rot resistant in a greenhouse study. It was crossed with ‘Earliblue’ and 85 seedlings were obtained. In general, the seedlings were fertile, had small, dark fruit with mild flavor, good scars and quite soft flesh consistency.

Blueberry selections Me-US 32 and Michigan Lowbush 1, and cultivars ‘Berkeley’, ‘Bluecrop’, ‘Earliblue’, and ‘Dixi’ were screened in the greenhouse for resistance to P. cinnamomi. Michigan Lowbush 1 was highly resistant to the root-rot fungus. Me-US 32 was resistant, but all the cultivars were susceptible. Michigan Lowbush 1 is a grandparent and probably the source of resistance of Me-US 32.

Open Access

Abstract

Octoploid progenies from species crosses between Fragaria virginiana Duch. ⨯ F. chiloensis (L.) Duch., F. virginianaF. ⨯ ananassa Duch., and 2 BC1 crosses to F. ⨯ ananassa were grown in replicated plots and data obtained on winter survival, vigor of growth, time of bloom, productivity, and size of fruit. The ‘Ambato’ clone of F. chiloensis from South America transmitted susceptibility to winter injury and its progenies were weak. Progenies with the ‘Sheldon’ clone of F. virginiana as a parent were vigorous, early blossoming, productive, and had small fruit. ‘Sheldon’ ⨯ ‘Midland’ was most vigorous and the earliest blossoming of all progenies. US 3563 ⨯ ‘Midland’ and ‘Surecrop’ ⨯ ‘Midland’ progenies were the most productive. Among the progenies ‘Surecrop’ ⨯ ‘Ambato’ and ‘Surecrop’ ⨯ ‘Midland’ had the largest mean size of fruit; ‘Sheldon’ ⨯ ‘Yaquina’ the smallest. The ‘Ambato’ and ‘Yaquina’ clones of F. chiloensis differed in transmission of characteristics to their progenies.

Open Access

Abstract

Two clones of Vaccinium showed high field-resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi and remained unaffected during 3 years of observation in naturally infested soil: Me-US 32, a productive, cultivated highbush selection (V. australe), and a selection from the wild of the diploid species (V. atrococcum). However, the clone, E-22 selection of V. australe, growing in adjacent row to the resistant clones was severely damaged by the pathogen. Phytophthora cinnamomi was readily isolated from soil surrounding both resistant and susceptible clones.

Open Access