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  • Author or Editor: D. F. Wagner x
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This paper describes a fast, accurate method of demonstrating the sites of high metabolic activity in bulbs and corms. The use of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) is outlined as a site-specific stain for meristematic activity in these specialized plant structures.

Open Access
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Field studies were conducted for 4 years on putting green turf to determine the influence of cultivation practices on the transition from overseeded perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. ‘Yorktown II’) turf to hybrid burmudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davies] in the spring. The cultivation practices of core aeration, vertical mowing, and topdressing were shown to have no positive influence of increasing the rate of bermudagrass coverage during the spring on bermudagrass greens overseeded with perennial ryegrass. The verticut treatment resulted in decreased bermudagrass coverage as well as a reduction in turf quality. All cultivation practices resulted in some quality loss at various times during the spring transition period compared to the control.

Open Access
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Abstract

Selected physical and chemical properties of pine bark, 2 sources of coal cinders, and mixtures thereof, were evaluated as container media components. Bulk density, air-filled pore space, particle-size distribution, cation exchange capacity, and soluble salt levels were quantified. Aged and freshly combusted cinders demonstrated no major physical or chemical disadvantages when used in container media. Acid and water extracts indicated that both sources of coal cinders released significant amounts of micronutrients and heavy metals. The concentrations of certain metals were sufficiently high to warrant concern over the possibility of plant nutritional disorders; whereas, other released elements resembled those of a supplemental micronutrient fertilizer.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Coal cinders with pine bark were evaluated as containerized plant growing medium. Rhododendron obtusum Lindl. ‘Hinodegiri’ liners were grown in several combinations of media composed of pine bark mixed with an aged and a recently combusted source of cinders. Measurements of media pH, soluble salts, NO3 –N, NH4 + –N, and 19 extractable nutrient and metallic ions were obtained. Leaf tissue samples were analyzed for 19 elements. Top dry weight, visual growth and chlorosis ratings, and root visual ratings constituted the plant growth parameters measured. Satisfactory growth was generated in pine bark amended with up to 50% cinders from either source.

Open Access

Abstract

Extensive losses in N applied to container-grown woody ornamental plants prompted this investigation to determine a) leaching of N from urea (U) and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU); b) influence of nitrapyrin (NI), a nitrification inhibitor, on N leaching losses from U; and c) to evaluate influences of these materials on growth, quality, and N uptake by Rhododendron obtusum Lindl. cv. Hinodegiri. In root medium composed of 60 pine bark : 30 sand : 10 soil (by volume), 48.8% of applied N from U was leached after 87 days, whereas leachate losses of N from IBDU and U + NI were 42.3% and 37.2%, respectively. All plants attained marketable quality by the end of the study. Azaleas fertilized with IBDU were of significantly higher quality on days 70 and 77 than those treated with U + NI and higher quality on days 77, 84, and 87 than those treated with U. No differences were found in shoot dry weight or N content in shoot tissues.

Open Access

Abstract

Mineralization of nitrogen fertilizers was determined in an organic medium composed of 6 pine bark : 3 sand : 1 soil (by volume). Nitrification was evident by day 7 following treatment with urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) and increased rapidly after day 14. Nitrification was not evident until day 56 in medium treated with urea + nitrapyrin (NI). Medium treated with urea or IBDU were depleted of NH4 + within 1 month, which corresponded to a peak in NO2 + NO3 accumulation. Only a small amount of NH4 + was not accounted for by nitrification and was assumed to be adsorbed by bark particles. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine (nitrapyrin), 1,1-diureido isobutane (IBDU).

Open Access

An interdisciplinary team of Clemson Univ. faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students partnered with the South Carolina Botanical Garden staff and children from the “Sprouting Wings” after-school garden program to plan and design a 2.5-acre Children's Garden. Imaginative and educational, the plans call for a series of outdoor theme gardens. Proposals for 13 theme gardens include a “Dinosaur Dig”, a “Food for Thought Garden”, a “Hide-and-Seek Garden”, a “Terraced Sitting Garden”, an “Ethnobotany Garden”, a “Wonders of Water Garden”, a “Learning from Nature Outdoor Classroom”, a “Carolina Fence Garden”, a “Cottage Garden”, a “Bold View Butterfly Garden”, a “Woodland Wonderland”, a “Playful Plaza Garden,” and an “Arbored Entrance and Exit Garden.” Project methodology included research, case studies, site analysis, program development, preliminary plans, master plan, and individual garden designs with plan views, elevation drawings, detail drawings, and plant lists. Using an experiential learning pedagogy, a design class of 15 students contributed an estimated 2,000 hours of work while learning about landscape design. Results included 30 drawing boards depicting research, analysis, and design proposals, which were presented to the South Carolina Botanical Garden Staff for approval in Fall 2003. Note: This material is based upon work supported by the cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 2002-38411-122122. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

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