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- Author or Editor: Cyril B. Smith x
‘Fordhook 242’ lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.) were grown in 1973-1974 with 16 fertilizer treatments and 2 plant stands (11 and 16 plants/m) at 0.96 m row width. Soils used were low in P and Mg, medium in K and high in Ca. Banded fertilizer treatments were 28 or 56 kg/ha of N, P, K, and Mg in various combinations, 5 N sources compared at 56-56-0 kg/ha, and 2 commercial fertilizers, 18-46-0 and 8-24-8. With an increase in plant stand from 11 to 16 plants/m of row, vine growth was increased and maturity was delayed but yield of marketable beans was not influenced. Yields were increased an average of 74% by 6 treatments at or close to 56-56-0 kg/ha with and without K when compared to check. N sources, P and K all affected maturity. Urea, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4NO3 resulted in higher yields than Ca(NO3)2 and NaNO3 primarily by hastening maturity. Leaf concentrations of Ca and Mg were enhanced by P and all N sources while leaf K was lowered. Applied K depressed leaf Mg. Thus when both K and Mg were added to NP treatment, Mg leaf concentration was not changed.
A 5-year sweet corn nutrition experiment involving 4 lime treatments, 14 fertilizer treatments, and 2 hybrids was conducted on Hagerstown silt loam which had an initial pH of 5.2. Calcitic, calcitic with 3% Mg and dolomitic (12% Mg) limes applied during the 1st and 3rd years at 4.5 MT/ha increased vigor, yield, percentage of marketable ears, leaf N, leaf P and decreased leaf Mn and Zn. Calcitic lime increased leaf Ca and Mg by 21% and 31%, respectively. Dolomitic lime more than doubled leaf Mg but did not affect leaf Ca. Dolomitic lime increased leaf Mg by 55% 60 days after application. The best fertilizer responses were obtained with 56 kg/ha each of N and P banded for ‘Northern Belle’, with 112 kg/ha of N (75% broadcast, 25% banded), and 56 kg/ha P banded for ‘Deep Gold’. These treatments increased yields (by 36% and 60%, respectively, compared to the check), plant height, ear size and weight, and hastened maturity by 5 days. Additions of K or Mg did not improve the response. Height and yield were reduced and maturity was delayed when Ca (NO3)2 rather than NH4 NO3 was used as the N source. Leaf Ca, Mg, and Mn were lower with Ca (NO3)2 than with NH4 NO3 and urea sources, but leaf N, P, Mn, Cu and Zn increased with the urea source. Leaf Ca and Mg were enhanced by NH4 NO3, Ca (NO3)2, and urea, and depressed by KC1.
‘Bush Blue Lake 283’ beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown with 16 fertilizer treatments at 16 commercial sites in Pennsylvania in 1973-74. No treatment gave significantly higher combined yield at one harvest than the NP treatment (28 kg/ha of each). This treatment resulted in increases of 27% in vine weight and 9% in yield while leaf concentration of Ca and Mg were enhanced by 19% and 36% respectively and K concentration was decreased by 17%. Added K which further increased vine weight but not yield, depressed Mg leaf concentration but this was more than compensated for by the NP enhancement. Although added Mg did not affect growth responses, it increased Mg leaf concentration, decreased Mn concentration and tended to decrease P and Ca concentration but did not lower K leaf concentration. When both K and Mg were added, Mg leaf concentration was no higher. Diammonium phosphate had no injurious effects.
Snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake 283) were grown in 2 greenhouse experiments in soil with 8 fertilizer treatments with a basic NP treatment to which various sources of K and Mg were added. The NP treatment substantially increased vine weight and leaf concentrations and total plant content of N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn and Na. In NPK treatments, regardless of K source, substantial increases in the leaf K and decreases in leaf P and particularly Mg concentrations were shown while only potassium chloride enhanced Mn leaf concentrations. In NPMg treatments, regardless of Mg source, leaf Mg increased but no reduction in K concentration occurred. Adding both K and Mg to the NP treatment did not affect the Mg leaf concentration. Treatments caused a redistribution of elements in plant parts.