Most of the winter vegetable production in the southeastern United States is located in Florida. High-value vegetable crops are grown under intensive fertilization and irrigation management practices using drip, overhead, or seepage irrigation systems. Rainfall events may raise the water table in fields irrigated by seepage irrigation resulting in leaching of nutrients when the level is lowered to remove excess water. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases on rainfall distribution and leaching rain occurrences during the fall, winter, and spring tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) growing seasons using long-term weather records available for main producing areas. Differences in fall growing season mean precipitation during El Niño, La Niña, and neutral years were found to be nonsignificant. Winter and spring mean precipitations during El Niño, La Niña, and neutral years were found to be significantly different. Winter and spring average rainfall amounts during La Niña and neutral years were lower than during El Niño years. During El Niño years, at least one leaching rainfall event of 1.0 inch or more in 1 day occurred at all locations and all planting seasons and two of these events occurred in more than 9 of 10 years except during the winter and spring planting seasons at the Tamiami Trail station located in Miami–Dade County. During the fall growing season of El Niño years, three to four 1.0 inch or more in 1-day leaching rainfalls may be expected at least 4 of 5 years at all locations. In the case of larger leaching rainfall events (3.0 inches or more recorded in 3 days or 4.0 inches or more recorded in 7 days), the probability of having at least one event was mostly less than 0.80. Based on these results, nitrogen fertilizer supplemental applications of 30 to 120 lb/acre could be applied during the fall growing season of all ENSO phases and during all planting seasons of El Niño years. Using current fertilizer prices, one supplemental fertilizer application of 30 lb/acre nitrogen and 16.6 lb/acre potassium costs $55/acre. Assuming a median wholesale price of $12 per 25-lb box, this additional cost may be offset by a modest yield increase of 4.6 boxes/acre (compared with a typical 2500 25-lb box/acre marketable yield). These results suggest that ENSO phases could be used to predict supplemental fertilizer needs for tomato, but adjustments to local weather conditions may be needed.
Clyde W. Fraisse, Zhengjun Hu and Eric H. Simonne
Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Lucas G. Paranhos, Peter Dittmar, Clyde W. Fraisse and John VanSickle
Weather has a major influence on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) production. Variation in yield between years and cropping seasons is common in North America. Cabbage in Florida has historically been cultivated on bare ground with seepage irrigation. The objectives of this study were to compare yield and profit of a bare ground cabbage production system used in Florida with an alternative plasticulture system. Data from various cabbage trials were combined by production system and used to create regression equations that predicted yield based on air temperature and solar radiation that were significantly correlated with yield. The regression equations were then simulated with correlated stochastic air temperature and solar radiation to estimate the yield distributions for both systems. Cabbage price ($/Mg fresh) was stochastically simulated (correlated to yield) to be used in the profit model. The profit model was created by using the product of yield and the price per unit yield minus fixed and variable costs associated with production and marketing. Simulated profit for bare ground and plasticulture was used to estimate their respective distributions to provide a tool for making better management decisions in the presence of risky weather conditions. The plasticulture system was estimated to have a 36% higher cost but a 57% higher profit than the bare ground system. This is, in large part, because the simulated mean yield for the bare ground system was 29.7 Mg·ha−1 compared with 54.4 Mg·ha−1 for plasticulture. These findings confirmed that plasticulture is an economically viable best management practice for cabbage production in Northeast Florida.
Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Lucas G. Paranhos, Brian S. Taylor, Peter Dittmar, Clyde W. Fraisse and John VanSickle
Florida is a major fresh-market cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) producing state in the United States. The current cabbage production system relies on bare ground and subirrigation that requires a large volume of water to irrigate the crop. The bare ground system facilitates a maximum of 48,438 plant/ha, while there is a potential to increase plant population per area using plasticulture and drip irrigation. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimum cabbage plant population and plant arrangement that maximizes marketable yield per area for a high cabbage population plasticulture system. Cabbage was grown on 1.2-m-wide raised beds with black plastic mulch and drip irrigation. Plants were grown in either three or four rows with in-row plant spacings ranging from 15 to 35 cm and plant populations ranging from 41,518 to 129,167 plants/ha. Cabbage marketable yield increased as in-row spacing increased. Yields ranged from 19.7 to 69.7 Mg·ha−1. Marketable yield was not different between 3 and 4 rows for in-row spacings above 25 cm. The 15 and 20 cm in-row spacing produced significantly lower yields in the 4-row configuration as compared with the 3-row configuration in Fall and Winter 2011. Wider in-row spacings produced a greater percentage of heads of marketable size while reducing the percentage of small heads when compared with narrower in-row spacings. Mean head weight increased as in-row spacing increased and a 3- or 4-row configuration with an in-row spacing between 25 and 30 cm had consistently high yields in all three seasons compared with narrower in-row plant spacings. These results indicated that with a high population plasticulture system variable plant populations could be selected. In-row plant spacings between 30 and 35 cm may be beneficial for early plantings while a 25-cm spacing could be more productive for later plantings, especially when weather conditions are favorable.