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  • Author or Editor: Clifford D. Ruth x
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Thomas G. Ranney, John M. Ruter and Clifford D. Ruth

Temperature sensitivity of net photosynthesis (PSN), dark respiration, and chlorophyll fluorescence was evaluated among three taxa of hollies including I. aquifolium, I. cornuta, and I. rugosa. Variations in foliar heat tolerance among these species were expressed as differential temperature responses for PSN. Temperature optima for PSN was 22.0, 26.3 and 27.9 umol·m–2·s–1 for I. rugosa, I. cornuta, and I. aquifolium, respectively. Differences in temperature optima for PSN and thermotolerance of PSN appeared to result from a combination of stomatal and nonstomatal limitations. At 40°C, potential photosynthetic capacity, measured under saturating CO2, was 4.1, 9.4, and 14.8 μmol·m–2·s–1 for I. rugosa, I. aquifolium, and I. cornuta, respectively. Based on these results, I. rugosa was identified as the most heat-sensitive species followed by I. aquifolium then I. cornuta. Comparative tolerance to root-zone inundation was evaluated among 14 holly taxa. Following 8 weeks of flooding, four of the taxa: I. cornuta `Burfordii', I. × `Nellie R. Stevens', I. cassine, and I. × attenuata `Foster's #2' performed remarkably well during and after flooding with photosynthetic rates > 40% of the controls, root ratings >75% of the controls, <5% of the foliage showing deterioration, and 100% survival. Conversely, I. crenata `Convexa', Ilex × meserveae `Blue Princess', I. rugosa and I. aquifolium `Sparkler' did not tolerate flooding well as indicated by severely depressed photosynthetic rates, deterioration of foliage and roots, and decreased survival. The remaining taxa were intermediate.0