Foliar micronutrient toxicity symptoms of Petunia hybrida `Ultra Crimson Star' were induced by elevated levels (from 0.25 to 6 mM) of boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) in the nutrient solution. Foliar toxicity symptoms of most micronutrients (except Fe) were characterized by leaf yellowing, interveinal chlorosis, and marginal necrosis. Mo toxicity was most severe. Leaf abnormality was not induced by Fe in the concentration range tested. Visible foliar toxicity symptoms developed when nutrient solution contained 5.4, 32, 28, 24, and 16 mg· liter-1, respectively, of B, Cu, Mn, Mo and Zn. Biomass yield was reduced when the fertilizer solution contained (in mg· liter-1): 22 B, 64 Cu, 335 Fe, 28 Mn, 24 Mo, and 33 Zn.
Chun-Ho Pak and Chiwon W. Lee
Chun Ho Pak*, Seung Won Kang, and Chiwon W. Lee
The influence of water-soluble fertilizer (WSF, 3 different formulations) and slow-release fertilizer (SRF, Osmocote, 14N-6.2P-11.6K) on the growth and quality of potted carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Invitation) in a C-channel mat irrigation system was investigated. When fertilized with 0.4, 0.8, or 2.0 g·L-1 of WSF (20N-7.9P-16.6K for weeks 1-4, 13K-0.1P-18.8K for weeks 5-11, and 15N-0P-12.5K for weeks 12-15), the 0.8 g·L-1 solution produced the highest quality plants as determined by total shoot fresh and dry weights, leaf area and number, plant height, and number of branches per pot. The quality of plants grown with 0.4 g·L-1 or 2.0 g·L-1 WSF solution was also commercially acceptable. The growth rate of all plants began to accelerate at around 60 days after treatment started, with some variation with the fertilizer treatments. Plants began to show a reduced growth rate at around 90 days from the treatment when they underwent a phase change from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. Plants grown with SRF alone were less vigorous than those grown with WSF, especially when temperature was lower. Results of this study indicate that high quality pot carnations can be produced, using a reduced amount of fertilizer applied to the C-channel mat irrigation system.
Chi Won Lee, Chun Ho Pak, and Jong Myung Choi
Micronutrient toxicity symptoms of seed geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum Bailey) `Ringo Scarlet' were experimentally induced by using 9 different concentrations of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn in the fertilizer solution. Plants of 3-4 true leaf stage grown in peat-lite mix were constantly fed for 5 weeks with nutrient solutions containing 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mM of each micronutrient. The control solution contained 20 uM B, 0.5 uM Cu, 10 uM Fe, 10 uM Mn, 0.5 uM Mo and 4 uM Zn. Visible foliar toxicity symptoms developed when the nutrient solution contained 2, 0.5, 5, 1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM, respectively, of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn. Reduction in dry matter yield was evident when 1 mM B, 2 mM Cu, 3 mM Fe, 2 mM Mn, 0.5 mM Mo, and 1 mM Zn were used in the fertilizer solution. Leaf chlorophyll contents decreased as Cu and Mn levels increased. Elevated levels of Fe increased tissue chlorophyll contents.
Chiwon W. Lee, Chun-Ho Pak, and Jong-Myung Choi
Correlations between the nutrient solution concentration and tissue content of micronutrients were determined for geranium, marigold and petunia. When nutrient solution contained 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 mM of boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn), the tissue content of each microelement increased linearly with increasing levels of the same micronutrient in the fertilizer. Equations for these correlations were established for the six micronutrients used for each species. Increasing levels of micronutrients did not influence tissue macroelement contents. Increasing levels of one micronutrient had little influence on the accumulation of other micronutrients in the tissue. Plant toxicity symptoms developed when the leaf content of microelements increased to a level 5-10 times that of plants grown with the control (Hoagland) solution.
Chi Won Lee, Chun-Ho Pak, and Harrison G. Hughes
Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) leaves produce stevioside and rebaudioside that can be used as a natural source of low-calorie sweetener which is heat-stable. Because of low fertility, this plant is often vegetatively propagated for field production. This study was conducted to optimize tissue culture procedures for propagating selected clones and explore the feasibility of producing the sweetener compounds by callus cultures. Shoot proliferation was best in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) Plus 10 mg/l kinetin. Kinetin as a cytokinin source was better than benzyladenine (BA) especially when NAA was present. Callus production fronm leaf disc cultures was most prolific when a combination of 0.1 mg/l NAA and 3 mg/l BA was used in MS medium. The relative sweetener contents of callus cultures are currently being-analyzed.
Chun Ho Pak, Seung Won Kang, and Chiwon W. Lee
Efficacy of application methods and concentration of plant growth retardants on growth of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflorum cv. Cheasepeake) was tested. B-9 or cycocel (CCC) as a growth retardant was applied as drench or subapplication with nutrient solution. In the case of B-9 drench treatments, as B-9 concentrations increased, numbers of flowers and flower buds increased except in the 1500-ppm treatment. Increasing concentration of CCC also resulted in reduction of flower numbers, total plant height, total leaf area, branch number, and fresh weight. Reduction ratio of total plant height in 2000 ppm showed about 56.9% being compared to that of the 100-ppm drench treatment. B-9 or CCC, combined with nutrient solution, was also supplied from the C-channel subirrigation system. The B-9 subapplication treatment showed no significance among these concentrations, but flower numbers, total plant height, average plant height, and leaf numbers decreased as concentrations of CCC increased. B-9 or CCC with the same concentration was drenched after 2 weeks of the first experiment to compare planting time efficacy. Measured data increased until B-9 increased up to 2500 ppm and severe growth retardation resulted from the 5000-ppm treatment. Through this growth retardant application study, the combination of drenching concentration and period of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may result in effective growth retardation and reduction of application concentrations for pot plant production.
Chiwon W. Lee, Jong-Myung Choi, and Chun-Ho Pak
Seed geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) micronutrient toxicity symptoms were induced by applying elevated levels of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in fertilizer solution. Beginning at the 3-4 true leaf stage, seedling plants established in 11-cm (0.67-liter) pots containing peat-lite growing medium were fertilized at each irrigation for 5 weeks with solutions containing 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm plus the standard concentration of each micronutrient. The standard solution contained 20 μm B, 0.5 μm Cu, 10 μm Fe, 10 μm Mn, 0.5 μm Mo, and 4 μm Zn. All treatment solutions contained a fixed level of macronutrients. Visible foliar toxicity symptoms were produced when the nutrient solution contained 0.5 mm B, 0.5 mm Cu, 5 mm Fe, 1 mm Mn, 0.25 mm Mo, or 0.5 mm Zn. Reduction in dry matter yield was evident when 1 mm B, 2 mm Cu, 3 mm Fe, 2 mm Mn, 0.5 mm Mo, or 1 mm Zn was used in the fertilizer solution. Leaf chlorophyll contents decreased as Cu and Mn levels in the concentration range tested increased. Elevated levels of Fe increased tissue chlorophyll contents. The relationship between the nutrient solution and tissue concentrations of each of the six micronutrients was determined.
Min Hyeong Kwon, Changwan Seo, Jongyun Kim, Moonil Kim, Chun Ho Pak, and Woo-Kyun Lee
The purpose of this study was to identify the current status and future development of children’s gardens within public gardens in the United States and to examine their roles as places for children to explore natural environments. This study identified 776 public gardens and examined 163 of those gardens using a comprehensive online survey. The sampled public gardens were widely distributed throughout the United States, although they were located primarily in the eastern and western regions of the United States. We found that 55% of the 163 public gardens that we investigated included a children’s garden at the time of data collection, and 26.4% planned to add a children’s garden in the near future. Children’s gardens found within public gardens were typically in a botanical garden and were added after the public gardens were formed. Most of the children’s gardens had a stated purpose of providing children with environmental education by allowing them to experience the natural environment through play. Most children’s gardens occupied a small proportion, less than 1 acre, of the overall size of a public garden. We also found that demographic and socioeconomic factors influenced the development of children’s gardens within public gardens and public gardens in general.
Jongyun Kim, Seung Won Kang, Chun Ho Pak, and Mi Seon Kim
Variegated foliage plants are often used in interiorscaping in low light environments. The changes in leaf morphology and coloration of two variegated foliage plants, english ivy (Hedera helix ‘Golden Ingot’) and polka dot plant (Hypoestes phyllostachya), under various light intensities [photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at 2.7, 6.75, 13.5, 67.5, and 135 μmol·m−2·s−1] were investigated to elucidate their optimum indoor light environment. Digital image analysis was used to quantify the changes in variegation area and color in CIELAB color space. The changes in leaf morphology (thickness, length:width) and coloration were different between the two species. In general, growth of both species increased with increasing PPF. English ivy showed no significant changes in leaf variegation under different PPF. Under low PPF (≤13.5 μmol·m−2·s−1), newly developed leaves of polka dot plant had reduced leaf variegation (44%, 72%, and 85% variegation loss under 13.5, 6.75, and 2.7 μmol·m−2·s−1, respectively). Anthocyanin content in leaves of polka dot plant also decreased with decreasing PPF, which reduced plants’ aesthetic quality. English ivy leaves under high PPF (≥67.5 μmol·m−2·s−1) displayed high brightness (L*) and yellowish green color (hue angle < 108°), which diminished its aesthetic value. Smaller leaf size and narrower shape of polka dot plant leaves under high PPF (≥67.5 μmol·m−2·s−1) also diminished its aesthetic value. Overall, english ivy performed well in a PPF range from 2.7 to 13.5 μmol·m−2·s−1, and polka dot plant required a PPF of at least 13.5 μmol·m−2·s−1 to maintain its red-purple variegation in the indoor environment.
Yeun Joo Huh, Seoung Youl Choi, Hak Ki Shin, and Chun Ho Pak
Nonbranching chrysanthemums [Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] are preferred because they require less labor in disbudding. High temperature is responsible for this phenotype of not having axillary buds or poor lateral shoot development. This study attempted to find out the effect of temperature and identify the involvement of endogenous polyamine contents in axillary bud formation of nonbranching chrysanthemum cv. Iwanohakusen. Plants were treated at 22, 26, 30, 34, and 38 °C for 9 hours midday for 2 months. Polyamine content [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm)] was analyzed 1 month after treatment and axillary buds were counted when the flowers opened. Results revealed that viable axillary buds decreased remarkably at 30 and 34°C. It was also found out that not only low temperature, but also the excessively high temperature of 38 °C induced axillary bud formation. Exposure to 38 °C increased the Put contents and resulted in high Put/(Spd + Spm) ratio as 22 °C, 26 °C. Temperature of 30, 34 °C lowered Put/(Spd + Spm) ratio. Results further showed that not polyamine contents, but polyamine ratio (Put/Spd + Spm) or transformation of Put to Spd and Spm may be involved in the axillary bud formation in nonbranching chrysanthemum.