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Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm and Jerry B. Sartain

Urban water quality management is becoming an increasingly complex and widespread problem. The long-term viability of aquatic ecosystems draining urban watersheds can be addressed through both regulatory and nutrient and water management initiatives. This review focuses on U.S. regulatory (federal, state, and local) and management (runoff, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impacts on urban water quality, specifically emphasizing programs in Florida. Because of rapid population growth in recent decades, and projected increases in the future, appropriate resource management in Florida is essential. Florida enacted stormwater regulations in 1979, before the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to regulate stormwater discharges. However, in the United States, more research has been conducted on larger structural best management practices (BMPs) (e.g., wet ponds, detention basins, etc.) compared with smaller onsite alternatives (e.g., green roofs, permeable pavements, etc.). For atmospheric deposition, research is needed to investigate processes contributing to enhanced deposition rates. Wastewater (from septic systems, treatment plants, and landfills) management is especially important in urban watersheds. Failing septic systems, elevated nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, and landfill leachate can all potentially degrade water quality. Proposed numeric nutrient criteria from the USEPA and innovative technologies such as bioreactor landfills are emergent regulatory and management strategies for improved urban water quality.

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Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm and Jerry B. Sartain

Urban watersheds include extensive turfgrass plantings that are associated with anthropocentric attitudes toward landscapes. Native and construction-disturbed urban soils often cannot supply adequate amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for the growth and beauty of landscape plants. Hence, fertilization of landscape plants is practiced. Mismanaged fertilization and irrigation practices represent a potential source of nutrients that may contribute to water quality impairment. This review focuses on turfgrass fertilization practices and their impacts on urban water quality. Research results show that fertilization during active growth periods enhances turfgrass nutrient uptake efficiencies. The major concern regarding the fertilization of turfgrass and landscape plants in urban watersheds, therefore, is selecting the proper combination of fertilizer rate, timing, and placement that maximizes nutrient utilization efficiency and reduces the risk for nutrient loss to water bodies. Encouraging individuals to adopt best management practices (BMPs) is a priority for watershed managers. Research has found that educational programs are an important part of changing fertilization habits and that education needs to be thorough and comprehensive, which is beyond the scope of many seminars and fact sheets currently in use.